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Good book for Electronics

vivensub

Sep 18, 2015
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Hey Guys,
I'm new here, and I've had only a rudimentary training in the basics of Electronics, and I somehow can't seem to be able to wrap my head around it in any possible way. My Teacher really can't seem to be able to help me.
So, I just needed to know, is there any really good Reference Book out there (I'm Indian, so any e-books or any Indian Author would be really helpful) that can really set the ball rolling and explain everything in Electronics in an easy to understand manner?
I understand the concepts behind a p-n junction reasonably well. Right now, We're doing Half-Wave Rectification and Zener Diodes, and I feel a little overwhelmed.
So, any kind of help would be really appreciated.
Thanks,
V
 

Martaine2005

May 12, 2015
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Hi,
I think youtube is extremely useful for electronics courses.
There are so many to choose from.

Martin
 

Minder

Apr 24, 2015
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AbeBooks clearing house is good source of cheaper hard copies.
Usually world wide.
M.
 

Arouse1973

Adam
Dec 18, 2013
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Why don't you just tell us what you are struggling with. I always find speaking to people on here a great way to learn. They pick up on where you have difficulties by what you write, they can then adjust the level of technicality to suit. I am predominantly self taught and I wish I had a place like this when I started, I had no one :( I had to do it all on my own sob sob. I am still crap BTW LOL.
Adam
 

Martaine2005

May 12, 2015
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I had no one :( I had to do it all on my own
That's funny

smallviolin.jpg
 

vivensub

Sep 18, 2015
8
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Sep 18, 2015
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Why don't you just tell us what you are struggling with. I always find speaking to people on here a great way to learn. They pick up on where you have difficulties by what you write, they can then adjust the level of technicality to suit. I am predominantly self taught and I wish I had a place like this when I started, I had no one :( I had to do it all on my own sob sob. I am still crap BTW LOL.
Adam
Like I said, I am still an Electronics Virgin. I understand that a Half-Wave Rectifier is one of the basics. I just want a really solid base to begin with.
However, nothing from what I have read in my textbook tells me what a Half-Wave Rectifier is practically used as, what it looks like, or how to manually operate it. I suppose I found the first two on my own, but it would really help if any of you guuys could tell me how to use it, and the various ways in which it could be used.
Thanks
 

Old Steve

Jul 23, 2015
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Thank you, this might just be exactly what I needed.
I only had a quick look, but there's some interesting stuff there. I can't help with the half-wave rectifier right now - it's waaay past my bedtime, but I'm sure someone else will. If not, I'll help with that tomorrow. (It's 4am here.)
 

Martaine2005

May 12, 2015
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I can give you my understanding of half wave rectification until Steve gives you a proper answer.
Half wave only uses one diode and rectifies half the sine wave, so also means that the voltage drops too.
It can be the top half of the wave or the bottom half.
A full wave rectifier uses two diodes and rectifies (changes to DC) both halves of the sine wave.
Another full wave rectifier is the bridge rectifier. It uses four diodes.

images


images


Martin
 

Old Steve

Jul 23, 2015
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(I'm still up, started a simulation of the unusual 12V SLA battery charger, for Adam's and my own curiosity, and couldn't stop until it was done.)

Good job Martin. :cool:
That gets the ball rolling nicely.

Now off to bed for me after a last cuppa. Yawn.
 

Arouse1973

Adam
Dec 18, 2013
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(I'm still up, started a simulation of the unusual 12V SLA battery charger, for Adam's and my own curiosity, and couldn't stop until it was done.)

Good job Martin. :cool:
That gets the ball rolling nicely.

Now off to bed for me after a last cuppa. Yawn.
Glad the operation went well Steve (your new avatar) they lost the beard, but could have given you more hair :) you look a lot younger by the way :)
Adam
 

Old Steve

Jul 23, 2015
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Sorry for the hijack @vivensub , now back to business with the half-wave rectifier.

You say you have a grasp of how a half-wave rectifier works, and just want to know how it can be used.
While the full-wave rectifier is more commonly used, a half-wave rectifier can be used to simply provide a DC supply voltage from an AC supply voltage, when ripple isn't too much of a concern. Almost always used in conjunction with a 'smoothing' capacitor, to smooth the rectified waveform into usable DC rather than a series of pulses.
Here's a circuit with a transformer, in which the secondary winding is feeding a diode, (half-wave rectifier), and the pulsed DC output has a load resistor across it.
Half Wave Unsmoothed.JPG

The problem with this is that the pulsed DC is not usable as a DC supply. DC circuits usually need a much more constant voltage, with the ripple smoothed into a more consistent waveform.
Adding a capacitor, like in the next diagram, smooths the waveform to a more acceptable shape:-
Half Wave Smoothed.JPG

The smoothing capacitor stores energy right up until the maximum positive input voltage, then releases it when the voltage drops in the trough, keeping the output voltage more constant.

As mentioned, for power supply purposes a half-wave rectifier is not often used, at mains frequencies, due to the high ripple.
As frequency increases, however, a capacitor becomes more efficient, and so a similar sized capacitor will achieve a far greater level of smoothing. A good example of a half-wave rectifier being used in a higher frequency application is an old-school CRT TV set, which uses high frequency to switch a transformer, and most of the secondary voltages from the transformer are only half-wave rectified, with relatively large capacitors for smoothing.

Another use for a half-wave rectifier is in a simple 'sample-and-hold' circuit, where the capacitor is charged to the peak voltage of the input waveform, (minus 0.6V, the diode forward voltage), then the diode stops the capacitor from discharging when the input voltage drops again. In this case, in an ideal circuit, there would be no load resistance, since the capacitor will discharge through that load. In practice, there is always some leakage into the circuit componenet following the capacitor.

Yet another use is as a pulse-length extender. Exactly the same as the crude 'sample-and-hold' described above, but the load resistance is chosen to discharge the capacitor in a given time, known as the RC time constant. One RC time constant is 'resistance multiplied by capacitance', which is the time it would take for the capacitor to lose 63% of it's voltage, discharging into the resistance. It takes 5 RC time constants for the voltage across the capacitor to approach zero again.

I think that this has been long-winded enough, so I'll stop here.
I hope you found this useful.
 

vivensub

Sep 18, 2015
8
Joined
Sep 18, 2015
Messages
8
Sorry for the hijack @vivensub , now back to business with the half-wave rectifier.

You say you have a grasp of how a half-wave rectifier works, and just want to know how it can be used.
While the full-wave rectifier is more commonly used, a half-wave rectifier can be used to simply provide a DC supply voltage from an AC supply voltage, when ripple isn't too much of a concern. Almost always used in conjunction with a 'smoothing' capacitor, to smooth the rectified waveform into usable DC rather than a series of pulses.
Here's a circuit with a transformer, in which the secondary winding is feeding a diode, (half-wave rectifier), and the pulsed DC output has a load resistor across it.
View attachment 22058

The problem with this is that the pulsed DC is not usable as a DC supply. DC circuits usually need a much more constant voltage, with the ripple smoothed into a more consistent waveform.
Adding a capacitor, like in the next diagram, smooths the waveform to a more acceptable shape:-
View attachment 22059

The smoothing capacitor stores energy right up until the maximum positive input voltage, then releases it when the voltage drops in the trough, keeping the output voltage more constant.

As mentioned, for power supply purposes a half-wave rectifier is not often used, at mains frequencies, due to the high ripple.
As frequency increases, however, a capacitor becomes more efficient, and so a similar sized capacitor will achieve a far greater level of smoothing. A good example of a half-wave rectifier being used in a higher frequency application is an old-school CRT TV set, which uses high frequency to switch a transformer, and most of the secondary voltages from the transformer are only half-wave rectified, with relatively large capacitors for smoothing.

Another use for a half-wave rectifier is in a simple 'sample-and-hold' circuit, where the capacitor is charged to the peak voltage of the input waveform, (minus 0.6V, the diode forward voltage), then the diode stops the capacitor from discharging when the input voltage drops again. In this case, in an ideal circuit, there would be no load resistance, since the capacitor will discharge through that load. In practice, there is always some leakage into the circuit componenet following the capacitor.

Yet another use is as a pulse-length extender. Exactly the same as the crude 'sample-and-hold' described above, but the load resistance is chosen to discharge the capacitor in a given time, known as the RC time constant. One RC time constant is 'resistance multiplied by capacitance', which is the time it would take for the capacitor to lose 63% of it's voltage, discharging into the resistance. It takes 5 RC time constants for the voltage across the capacitor to approach zero again.

I think that this has been long-winded enough, so I'll stop here.
I hope you found this useful.
Thanks a mil.This is easier to understand now. So, from what I gather, using the Capacitor smoothens out the AC Wavefromjust enough for it to resemble a DC Waveform. So can we add many Capacitors to the circuit in order to completely convert an AC Waveform into a DC Waveform?
 
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