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High Voltage Direct Current

crutschow

May 7, 2021
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What are the advantages of HVDC?
Are you asking?

Advantages:

For a given peak voltage a 2-wire DC line can deliver about 80% of the power as an AC 3-phase line (√2 / √3) for the same current.
If 3 wires are used for the DC line with two lines being opposite polarity and one common, then the DC lines would carry 160% of the 3-phase line power.

DC does not exhibit the significant reactive loss that long AC lines have.
 

Bluejets

Oct 5, 2014
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As a side note, New Zealand used to have/ may still have around 600klm HVDC distribution line.
Details of advantages etc. on Wiki.
 

hevans1944

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@HarryA: The "contest" deadline has been moved up to today, April 19, 2023. Read the Amendments section of the Contest Rules.

HVDC power transmission is already a "done deal" in several places, both in the USA and in Europe. It relies on the ability of the HVDC network to rectify large amounts of three-phase HVAC, usually generated inexpensively from fossil or nuclear fueled plants but also hydroelectrically, sending the DC power over very long distances (Washington state to Los Angeles for example), and inverting the HVDC to three-phase HVAC for distribution to metered customers, such as high-performance electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. Think mega-volts and mega-amperes and terrawatts of power, evenly distributed across the Western Hemisphere from Alaska and Greenland in the north, to Argentina and Chile in the south and every country in between. If you want to include other parts of the world, consider building super-conducting underground or underwater HVDC power transmission lines.

Assuming sufficiently large energy resources, necessary to generate electricity for a nation of EVs, the main problem is getting that energy into the batteries of the users. Elon Musk has the technology (with his Boring Company) to dig underground tunnels that would contain the cryogenics necessary for super-conductors. Because of maximum current limitations in super-conductors that are available today, several parallel super-conductors will probably be necessary for capacity, as well as for redundancy for maintenance purposes, and in case of failure of one or more super-conductors.

This massive project, if implemented, will cost many trillions of dollars and require many years to complete. A more practical solution to powering and recharging a few hundred million (or a few billion) EVs could be very small (perhaps portable) nuclear fusion reactors that directly produce electricity to propel the electric vehicle or to recharge its battery. That is an engineering problem that has not been solved yet. Practical nuclear fusion is always either "fifty years away" or "just around the corner," depending on your level of optimism and/or gullibility. Sure, solar is always a possibility. And photo-voltaic (PV) panels are becoming less expensive. But we haven't built-out that capability either, except in Florida where Florida Power and Light has been busy building out their solar farms.

Current politics (and perhaps even common sense) favors EVs over the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) because so-called fossil-fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas will eventually be exhausted... in, say, ten thousand years or so... or perhaps because Al Gore was right and the ICE is destroying the planet. If Global Climate Change is really caused by human activity, the change from vehicles powered with an ICE to vehicles running on battery power is NOT going to change or affect that in any way. I personally think that natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and large meteor impacts... and maybe cow farts or belches... pose a more immediate threat of danger to the human race, and to life on this planet, than almost anything humans can do... except to (briefly) engage in thermonuclear warfare.
 
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crutschow

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If Global Climate Change is really caused by human activity, the change from vehicles powered with an ICE to vehicles running on battery power is NOT going to change or affect that in any way.
That's a blanket statement that's not true if the climate change is caused by the increase in atmospheric CO2, which seems likely, and the electricity to charge the batteries is generated by non-CO2 producing generating stations.
 

kellys_eye

Jun 25, 2010
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if the climate change is caused by the increase in atmospheric CO2, which seems likely,
Undoubtedly does BUT it's not a linear (or logarithmic) progression nor does it come without feedback to compensate/mitigate (else the world would have burned up a long time ago). Human emissions pale to insignificance in the global effect CO2 has and should be ignored for all practical purposes.

BEV's are a ridiculous idea when considering infrastructure and material requirements. Hybrid should be the route to go - with a gradual change to BEV as-and-when the technology progresses sufficiently to incorporate it.
 

danadak

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Nuclear fusion a nasty business, waste byproducts and half life's associated
with radioactive decay materials. And a rich history already with polluted areas
no longer discussed, Washington, Idaho.....

Back to bicycles ?

Humans versus volcanoes, lets not talk about Tetra Giga Biga tons of pollution
being put into airspace by aircraft, lets continue to not discuss that. Or heat
produced by all human activity, no problems mate, we can beat the second law
of thermodynamics......

Or plastic pollution of oceans producing islands of the stuff and now we find out
from fish sampling they are carrying microscopic bits of it in their bodies.

My bet is on cockroaches surviving the long haul, not humans.


Regards, Dana.
 

hevans1944

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My bet is on cockroaches surviving the long haul, not humans.
If we humans do what we have evolved to do, kill and/or enslave all competition, then no cockroach is safe.

I am not placing any bets for life of any kind remaining on this planet during the next ten thousand years. Civilizations rise and then fall by self-destruction on a regular basis. The difference today is our ability to thoroughly and completely poison and destroy the environment in which we all need to "live long and prosper." There may indeed be a cause-and-effect relationship between CO2 levels in the atmosphere and average global temperature, but I see no indication that the world is cooperating, in an effective way, to reverse the monotonically increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 or any other "greenhouse" gas. On the other hand, there seems to be no shortage of thermonuclear weapons.

Someone who was a mentor to me in the 20th century once said, "The only reason we haven't had a global thermonuclear war yet is the "powers that be" know that they would also die." Sooner, if not later. That made sense when he said it, and provided some comfort to me way back then when the Cold War was in full swing. But it ignored the insanity behind the thought that any war involving nuclear weapons can be won, if only we strike first with everything we have. Hmmm. That worked once, against Japan, when there was a very limited supply of nuclear weapons. But since then there has been a build-up of nuclear arms around the world: the United States of America, Russia, the United Kingdom of Great Britain, France, China, North Korea, Pakistan, India, and Israel just for starters. Perhaps soon to be added are countries like Iran, Argentina, and Brazil. Or maybe smaller, well-financed, entities looking to fulfill their death wish.
 

kellys_eye

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Civilizations rise and then fall by self-destruction on a regular basis.
'Self destruction'? Not really. Circumstantial changes and/or external events seem to be the most common cause. Those 'civilisations' (like the Myan etc) were really only localised populations - basically large villages - and not as we would consider a civilisation as currently exists i.e. worldwide. Recent documentaries about the collapse of civilisation some 11,600 years ago seem to be pretty convincing to me and that was as a result (they believe) of some potential cometry (debris) impacts.

The difference today is our ability to thoroughly and completely poison and destroy the environment in which we all need to "live long and prosper."
I think we're well aware of the potential for this happening and much has changed over the decades - the likes of 'killer smog' in London for example - all gone and cleaner air than practically anywhere in the world with such a population density. Even China and their reputed dirty environment will, in time, go through a clean-up and no-one will be any the worse off thereafter. The need for energy (coal-derived in Chinas case) outstrips the short-term potential harms as the net result is a healthier, wealthier society that can actually make the necessary chages to a cleaner world.

but I see no indication that the world is cooperating, in an effective way,
People seem disinclined to find the actual data that proves that the planet reacts to 'save itself'. More CO2 means a greener world (proven and happening) but the real CO2 counter-fact happens at sea where algae blooms make all the difference - and then disappear. The planet seems more than capable of looking after itself - but the activists won't allow the general population to fully appreciate this as it destroys their stance.

reverse the monotonically increasing levels of atmospheric CO2
It's a natural cycle. History proves that higher levels have occurred and NOTHING happened to the planet. Our hubris in thinking WE control such events is laughable. Claims of CO2 damage etc based on 150 years of (criminally 'adjusted') data is a pathetic attitude to a climate that measures cycles in centuries, or eons.

It's not a nice way to think but I don't believe the consequences of nuclear warfare would be anywhere as 'globe destroying' as the media would like us to think. That's a good thing though - if people were complacent about the effect of a nuclear war then such a war would have happened sooner!

The way things are going though....... I'm of the firm belief that whoever is running the USA (or the 'planet' in terms of the globalists we know and understand to whatever limited extent) would be more than capable of instigating a global nuclear conflict if it suited THEIR purpose. That we, the voters, are now so far removed from the processes of democracy (every election seems rigged) and the application of policies WE want - but never get - means those who really do hold and pull the strings will do what THEY want with zero consideration for the resut of us.

As far as 'democracy' is concerned - there isn't any. Things need to change - and quick.
 

hevans1944

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Okay, @kellys_eye, perhaps I was feeling a bit pessimistic in my post #8. The human race is probably at least 100,000 years old, so who knows how many times "civilization" has arisen and fallen... time has a way of obliterating history.
The need for energy ... outstrips the short-term potential harms ...
Does it, really? How does anyone know what the long-term consequences of bad decisions will be until the consequences actually occur?

The Universe is mostly empty space, but it is FULL of energy. The problem is accessing that energy safely and inexpensively, assuming we humans have an unquenchable desire for more, more, and even more energy. Maybe bicycles ARE the way we should/will eventually go to satisfy our personal transportation needs. Before the invention of the bicycle, plain ol' shank's mares or (if you could afford it) a domesticated "beast of burden" such as a horse or a camel sufficed... until the world became a global village. I don't agree with @danadak:
Nuclear fusion a nasty business
Its a nasty business because we don't know how to safely and inexpensively perform nuclear fusion. The only working examples are stars, where the fusion is spherically contained (mostly) by gravitational compression of the reacting components. However, stars eventually "burn out" and eventually everything will be absorbed by the "Tetra Giga Biga" number of black holes present, at least one in every galaxy.

I don't look forward to the day when all those black holes coalesce into just one, but maybe that will be the singularity that starts up a brand new universe. Meanwhile, we DO have a working fusion reactor, located a safe 93,000,000 miles (on average) away from Earth, that pumps out about a kilowatt of power onto every square meter of the planet... at least at the equator. Somewhat less as you go further north or south. This occurs day and night, 24/7/365, but fortunately the albedo of our planet is large enough to reflect MOST of that energy back into outer space. If we convert what is left into high-quality electricity, we could power up the planet. Or we could use our Sun to grow crops and forests. Or feed the ocean's denizens with algae blooms that start the food chain there. Many uses for solar energy. It's not just for warming your swimming pool (if you have one) or recharging the horribly inefficient battery in your Tesla (if you can afford one) automobile.

if people were complacent about the effect of a nuclear war then such a war would have happened sooner!
Complacency is the only thing left if people cannot prevent nuclear war. I certainly hope it never happens in my lifetime... oh, wait. It already did. I hope it never happens again.
As far as 'democracy' is concerned - there isn't any.
Democracy is waaaay over-rated as a "good" form of government. The observation that no other form of government works as well, either, is no excuse for not looking further. The "rule of the majority" means that any minority opinion can be ignored. And it often is ignored... until a new majority replaces the old majority. A benevolent dictatorship gets things done without argument. Just ask the Chinese who survived Mao Tse Tung and now live in the Workers Paradise with jobs (if they want them), free education, free housing, free food... under Communism everything is free... except freedom. The Chinese people in mainland China would need a huge supply of unobtainium to actually achieve freedom.

So, if the world (through the application of "true" democracy) votes me in as their Supreme Leader, I promise to be a Benevolent Dictator... a chicken in every pot, an automobile in every garage, free energy and plenty of fiat currency. What's not to like? Of course, since I am older than most voters, sooner rather than later I will die and leave everyone else holding the bag. But in the meanwhile, things will look rosy. Maybe the human race could elect an AI to be their Benevolent Dictator? What? The AI suspended elections... forever!
 
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kellys_eye

Jun 25, 2010
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How does anyone know what the long-term consequences of bad decisions will be until the consequences actually occur?
No one does, of course, but there are few decisions and consequences that can't be reversed given enough time. The effects of oil spills, nuclear war even - time is a great healer.

Our saviour isn't going to be 'energy' as such. Room temperature super-conductors is what's holding us back. As you state, energy is plentiful but invariably never where you actually need it.

Democracy should be left to the individual - as should religion. Government should ONLY be there to organise the basic essentials of a civilised society (safety, law and order, essential public services etc) and the law should be cut back to 'do no harm, cause no loss' (Magna Carta in essence) and a stable, non-controlled monetary system (gold?) should be mandatory.

People are innovative and are capable of running their own lives if left alone. Those that can't (more likely won't) need to learn the meaning of Darwinism and if anyone isn't capable of following/adopting these basic rules they will have to defer to those who will voluntarily give them assistance (mercy).

Life's complications have been 'derived' and forced upon people to create a sub-system of those who seek to control the outcome. YOU (i.e. the individual) should be the only person to do that.
 

hevans1944

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I enjoy these dialogs with @kellys_eye and wish others would join us. I don't think either he nor I will have any influence on how things will progress from here, but as noted elsewhere, time has a way of healing all wounds... or is it wounding all heels? Que sera sera.
a stable, non-controlled monetary system (gold?) should be mandatory.
That is what Bitcoin (block-chain encryption technology) is supposed to do, but I don't believe it is a monetary system. It is a pyramid (Ponzi) scheme. A true and fair monetary system would protect the value of wealth. Gold is "self-protecting" because it is (1) useful, (2) scarce, and (3) requires physical effort to acquire. Bitcoin does meet those three requirements, but it is intangable. Unfortunately, there is an insufficient amount of gold (or any other "precious" commodity) to service the mercantile needs of our world with a "reasonable" ratio of weight-of-gold to the value of fiat "currency" that any sovereign entity may issue. It is true that you cannot eat gold, but it is accepted everywhere as having some value. When a large cache of gold is discovered, it immediately causes inflation of the prevailing currency. Who would pay a hundred dollars (in gold) for a chicken egg? Why, a gold miner of course! The miner can eat the egg, but what can you do with Bitcoin? Or any other vaporous technology? BTW, these are just my personal opinions, and those opinions could (possibly) be wrong.

I almost missed it (born too late), but in my native state of West (by God!) Virginia, the owners of coal mines would not pay their miners in United States dollar-bill currency. Instead they printed "scrip" that was denominated in "dollars" but could only be spent in "company stores" that stocked and sold everything a miner needed. These company stores would also extend "credit" if you didn't have enough scrip to pay for your purchases. There was even a song, "Sixteen Tons" written by Merle Travis, a Kentucky coal miner, first sung and recorded by Tennessee Ernie Ford (and, later, others) that described the horrible use of scrip to virtually enslave coal miners. More on this practice can be found here. This line from the song describes the result of using scrip to pay for the mining of a useful commodity, coal: "I owe my soul to the company store."

When I was very young, my family returned to WV to visit relatives we had there. The highlight of the trip (for me) was a visit to the "company store" that still accepted the company scrip for whatever they sold. Of course the company store had to also accept genuine dollars because it says on that currency "legal tender for all debts public and private." You cannot argue and win any argument against the U.S. Government... usually.
learn the meaning of Darwinism
God, in His infinite wisdom, apparently decided that "natural selection" was the way to go. Start small and see what works. Let the critters compete, and may the "best" critter win. Well, we all know how that turned out. So, having finally discovered Science and the use of the Scientific Method, humans decided that natural selection could be improved by intelligent design. Cut and splice some DNA strands to make a better world. Unfortunately, this approach does not appreciate the "trial and error" weeding-and-culling methods of natural selection, i.e. Darwinism. But a true Darwinist will say: This will (eventually) be self-correcting, if only we can survive it.
 
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kellys_eye

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Unfortunately, there is an insufficient amount of gold (or any other "precious" commodity) to service the mercantile needs of our world with a "reasonable" ratio of weight-of-gold to the value of fiat "currency" that any sovereign entity may issue.
Not so - there are actual currency notes that have been printed with real gold embedded in them (albeit probably an evaporated layer of it). They are called 'Goldbacks' and issued in Utah and Nevada and New Hampshire and they are accepted currency in many places there.


But apart from gold there is also silver - this was a common currency in centuries past and still retains value today, certainly to the extent that a stable silver-based currency for smaller denominations could be issued. Silver was a constituent part of many coins until the price of silver rose beyond the face value of them and they were then 'degraded' using other metals until, toady, non (as I understand) contain silver any more - this could be reversed if currencies weren't subject to the fiat practise of money-printing.

AFAIK there are ways to detect physical gold in the same way there are methods of proving the authenticity of bank notes so counterfeiting isn't really an issue.

PS - apologies for hijacking the OP's thread too!
 
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hevans1944

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PS - apologies for hijacking the OP's thread too!
PPS - It is always easier to ask for forgiveness, rather than risk the refusal of permission. Saves a lot of time, too, unless it is abused.

I did mention "precious" commodity instead of specifically naming silver. Several things qualify as "precious" (besides the Ring of Power) and I think silver is considered a precious metal by many people, although it is quite common compared to gold. Platinum and iridium could also be considered as precious. What is considered to be "precious" all depends on a willing buyer paying the asking cost of a seller.

'Goldbacks' ... issued in Utah and Nevada and New Hampshire ... are accepted currency in many places there.
That is no doubt true, but that does not mean this "currency" is "legal tender for all debts public and private." In fact, it is NOT legal tender anywhere, not even in the state that issued the Goldback. It is art that appears in the likeness of currency. The 50 Goldback contains 1/20 Troy ounces of pure gold, evaporated or otherwise deposited on plastic film. The selling price is currently 186.50 dollars. 2026.45 dollars per Troy ounce is the current asking price for gold. That 50 Goldback is potentially worth about a hundred bux if you melt it down, separate the gold from the plastic, and sell the gold. That's not a very good deal unless the price of gold increases substantially, as it no doubt will do (eventually) if the inflation of dollar currency continues its current trend upward. Eventually, no one will be able to afford to purchase an ounce of gold, nor even a loaf of bread, if the value of a dollar is worth less than the paper it is printed on. Goldbacks are NOT a solution to inflation, nor are Goldbacks legitimate currency. If you "invest," say, a million dollars to purchase Goldbacks, there is no reason to believe the value of gold, in the same currency used to purchase Goldbacks, will ever increase sufficiently to preserve your "investment."

OTOH, an ounce of pure gold is still an ounce of gold, no matter how much fiat currency is required to purchase that gold. Gold in America was often found "in the wild" in the form of fine particles (gold dust) as well as in the form of larger nuggets. It still found that way today. The gold dust or nuggets could be stored and carried on a person safely, without loss, in leather pouches. Later, the gold could be weighed out to purchase items at an agreed on "cost" of a certain weight of gold for the purchase of the item. Although these transactions were completely transparent, the actual process of weighing out the gold to complete the purchase was inconvenient. Also, some of the gold dust could be lost to spillage onto the floor, where it would later be recovered by the shop keeper sweeping the floor. Later, gold coins became a more convenient means of trade, but that had problems with people shaving the edges of coins to recover some gold and people counterfeiting coins by alloying gold with metals of lesser value.

Unfortunately, there is simply not enough gold in the world to support its use as money. Pure gold is a scarce but very useful commodity, so it retains its value better than most commodities. Gold can also be alloyed with other metals, silver for example, to increase the "wearability" of coinage and jewellery. Fortunately, there are chemical methods of recovering pure gold from its alloys.

After Germany lost World War I, the cost of reparations led the Weimar Republic to issue massive amounts of fiat currency. So much "money" was printed and distributed into the economy that hyper-inflation of the Deutschmark occurred. It reached its peak in November 1923, when ONE American dollar was worth 4,210,500,000,000 German marks!

Americans like to believe that modern financial institutions can prevent another extreme inflationary event, but that simply isn't true. Inflation is, by definition, the result of too much money trying to purchase a diminishing supply of goods. In my opinion it is caused by two things: (1) Policies that allow for the creation of unlimited amounts of fiat currency; and (2) Democracy, where the majority will inevitably vote for "bread and circuses" with no consideration for how to pay for it. We see the truth of this most vividly in the so-called left-coast "blue" states of California, Oregon, and Washington, but the idea that everything should be "free" has creeped across the entire country as government "entitlement" programs have become a huge part of the national spending budget, second only to the interest owed on the national debt.

I am NOT complaining: being retired, I depend on the entitlement programs of Social Security and Medicare for a goodly part of my retirement debts and obligations. I have already received more from those programs than I contributed in taxes to fund them, all because my generous government prints money to pay for them.
 
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kellys_eye

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In fact, it is NOT legal tender anywhere, not even in the state that issued the Goldback. It is art that appears in the likeness of currency.
True - but it doesn't have to be LEGAL tender. The paper (fiat) dollar isn't legal tender either. It's whether or not the users have FAITH (or trust) in whatever they use as a currency that makes it work. The US dollar is paper, pure and simple. Paper and ink with ZERO intrinsic value. Anyone, anywhere, can issue a 'currency' - AFAIK there is no legal restriction.

That the Goldbacks actually have REAL gold as part of their structure gives them, in my eyes, actual value and the amount they contain can be adjusted (set) to cover the availability of a set amount of gold. On this basis it stands a chance of being accepted and not capable of being 'debased' given their fixed gold content equivalency.

One other method of currency that interest me is the concept of a Constitutional Currency. Issued by the Government, debt-and-interest-free and having a 'total' value (of issued notes) based on the GDP of the country. This gives everyone a stake in making it successful and thus increaasing its inherent worth. The Government should only be capable of debasing (devaluing) the currency by approval of a majority of the voting public. This tying of currency to actual 'value' (the wealth of the country) prevents manipulation. OK, there will be other issues to resolve but removing the BANKS from the process of currency issuance is key to our survival. No single, private institute should have control over the issuance of money. The PEOPLE create wealth. The PEOPLE should control it.

I don't place much faith in my Government pension being made available to me or suppporting me in the manner I expect it to despite having paid into it for over 45 years (and still paying) such is the state of affairs. Private pensions (that I hold) are being destroyed by inflation and my only saving-grace is that I'm entirely debt-free and own my own home.

The future looks bleak from here.
 

hevans1944

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The future looks bleak from here.
I agree. I wonder if there is anything, short of The Second Coming of Christ, that will improve things...

Congratulations on being debt-free. Cash is King! And it may soon be that gold and silver coins will become the ONLY money accepted in trade because only these two metals have held their value, even in the midst of the runaway inflation experienced now by the US dollar.

China appears to be in the cat-bird seat when it comes to fungible currency, so we may have to learn to trade in yuan. Or maybe rupees. Or even yen. Who knows where the world economy is headed? If we abandon fossil fuels (of which there is a dtill a plentiful supply) then world trade comes to a halt. I don't see ANY near-term solutions, unless sailing ships replace oil-fueled vessels. I consider that highly unlikely, despite tremendous advances in sailing technology, because of the large number of sailing ships (not built as yet) that would be required to support world trade.
 
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kellys_eye

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I agree. I wonder if there is anything, short of The Second Coming of Christ, that will improve things...
There does seem to be an awakening albeit a slow one. Watching proponents of Net Zero get slaughtered by members of Congress ("Since we're spending $50 trillion on Net Zero, can you tell me by how much this will reduce global temperatures?..........." - The person answering tried to obfuscate and couldn't answer) was delightfully funny. People are also starting to realise that Green Energy, anti-CO2 anti fossil fuel and pro-EV are COSTLY scams as well as the push for CBDC's being an attack on all freedoms etc. Nothing quite like unnecessary expense to make people sit up and take notice - more so when the economies start to falter and 'spare' cash is hard to hand over.

I worry that such awakening will push the lunatics to press the 'big red button' as they see their plans start to dissemble - the rhetoric from Russia places the blame firmly where it belongs and a LOT of the world are starting to understand where the aggression and 'control' comes from.

The next few years will be make-or-break. I'm doing (done?) all I can to mitigate all the potential outcomes that I can think of. Me and the State are 'finished'. The State see me as their cash cow and I see them as parasites and 'this' is one host they are no longer going to ride. Any and all forms of 'pushback' are to be encouraged - delays, questions, obfuscations, 'ignorance' etc - anything to make their life as difficult and expensive as possible - for their own funds to try to take control of us all will eventually dry up and those who were (are) victims will get their chance.
 

hevans1944

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The paper (fiat) dollar isn't legal tender either.
Sure it is! It says so in plain words, printed on every fiat paper note, attested to by the signature of the Treasurer of the United States Government and the signature of the Secretary of the Treasury. But please don't ask what is in the "gold vault" located in Fort Knox, Kentucky to back up those signatures. The USA, under President Nixon, went completely off the "gold standard" because of Grishom's Law: "bad money" will always replace "good money" in any economy. And the military-industrial complex needs massive funding to maintain the superior position of the United States with respect to the rest of the world. It still does, but now there is significant competition from other countries for world dominance, China in particular.

The USA can no longer afford to back its fiat currency with anything more fungible than the written promise that the currency it issues is "Legal tender for all debts public and private." The oil in Saudi Arabia was, until recently, traded exclusively in petro-dollars (a non-currency), but recently Russia has been exporting oil to China, and this oil trading is presumably being conducted using Chinese yuan to purchase the Russian oil.

So you are absolutely correct: it is simply FAITH that allows folks to accept dollars (or any other fiat currency) as payment for anything of value. When that faith is broken, as it was in the Weimar Republic after WWI, when that government tried to pay for reparations following the surrender of Germany by simply printing more Deutchmarks. The only "solution" to the resulting inflation occurred when Adolph Hitler started WWII by invading Poland.

We are perhaps fortunate that President Roosevelt "tricked" Japan into attacking Pearl Harbor, or the USA might never have entered another war in Europe. And it's a "good thing" that the Marshall Plan provided dollars (backed by gold at the time) and material to rebuild the nations of Europe after VE (Victory in Europe) Day.

Victory in the Pacific against Japan was a long and arduous conflict that was not well-supported by Americans. Were it not for the help of Australia and New Zealand and (of course) the Atomic Bomb, Americans may have had to learn to read, write, and speak Japanese. Or, more likely, the Japanese would easily learn English and restrict the use of "their" language to Japanese nationals.

There may be solutions to the problems existing in the world today, but FAITH or HOPE are not strategies that will find those solutions. I do have faith in God, but I have no clues (other than words translated for the Christian Bible from other languages) what God's intentions for humanity might be. Perhaps there will be a second coming of the Christ in my lifetime, but the biblical prophesy on that is pretty grim concerning what happens next: most of humanity dies. Period. No afterlife, no resurrection, except for a Chosen few. Not sure what would happen to me if I am alive to witness it, but I doubt that I will be numbered among the Chosen. As for all those other people who are convinced their religion is the correct interpretation, and that all other "faiths" are false, or those who profess to be atheists or agnostics... well, good luck. Que sera sera.

I don't read Arabic, so cannot say what the Koran interpretation of things to come is or what it means. Sure, God is great. And if anything happens, it must be because it was God's will that it happen. So much for free will, if that is even a legitimate concept given what we know about physics and quantum mechanics today. Here in America there is a strong tide favoring anarchy because our youngsters are not being educated to critically think about anything. It has become "all about feelings" among a certain segment of the population.

I just found out (from a conservative television network) that in a poll a huge majority of teenagers in America would, if given a choice, prefer losing their voting rights for a year instead of losing their "right" to access social media such as Twitter, Facebook, Tik Tok, etc. That, plus the general decline in education (most high school "graduates" cannot read at the level expected for good citizenship), does not bode well for my country.
 

kellys_eye

Jun 25, 2010
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Sure it is! It says so in plain words, printed on every fiat paper note, attested to by the signature of the Treasurer of the United States Government and the signature of the Secretary of the Treasury.
I think (hope?) you say that in jest? I always understood the US Constitution to define 'money' in terms of silver and gold i.e.
  1. No state shall coin money, emit bills of credit, or make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts. ~ Art. I, sec. 10, cl. 1.
Of course this was obviated by the creation of the Fed - Federal Reserve - (rather than State) that itself was created under 'suspicious circumstances' etc and so forth...... thus bypassing individual States and circumventing the (alleged) purpose of the Constitution.... sneaky!

I would suggest that it has been a long and careful process to destroy family life, individuality and attention span such that the youngsters of today are so much more self-centred and incapable of individual thought and - to say the least - confused. Whilst this is not, obviously, not true for everyone it does seem to be so for a majority. All said, when you read and listen to the crimes and abuses of 'the law' by a certain section of society who seem to be beyond apprehension let alone charges of criminal conduct along with the disregard for values, traditions and morals it's hard not to 'welcome' a catastrophe that might take it all down.

Left to fester and grow as it is, the future seems very bleak and dystopian for us all.
 

Delta Prime

Jul 29, 2020
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the future seems very bleak and dystopian for us all.
I had a terrible dream of a dystopian future when I was on a road trip where robots controlled every aspect of our lives.
Luckily I was awakened by my Tesla.
 
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