Maker Pro
Maker Pro

Power from Auto - Electronic Emissions


rev dan izzo

Jan 1, 1970




P.N.Correa, MSc, PhD, and A.N. Correa, HBA

Labofex Experimental and Applied Plasma Physics, Ontario, Canada









"Our laws of force tend to be applied in the Newtonian sense

in that for every action there is an equal reaction, and yet, in

the real world, where many-body gravitational effects or

electrodynamic actions prevail, we do not have

every action paired with an equal reaction."

H. Aspden, 1993

Anomalous cathode reaction forces varying in proportion to the square
of the input current were first identified separately by Tanberg and
Kobel, in 1930, during studies of cathode vaporization in "vacuum"-arc
discharges (VADs) and stationary cathode spots (1,2). In his original
paper, Tanberg made a case for the presence of longitudinal forces on
electrodynamic interactions, which he attributed to the counterflow of
vaporized cathode particles (1), but K. Compton demonstrated that the
vapor jet only accounted for <2% of the reaction force's magnitude
(3). He suggested a different interpretation of the the electrodynamic
anomaly, arguing for a mechanical rebound, at the cathode, of
charge-neutralized gas ions that hit the cathode in the course of the
discharge (bombardment rebound) (3).

In the 1940's, little work was done on the North-American continent on
the presence of longitudinal forces in plasma discharges. The notable
exceptions may have been the self-funded research of W. Reich and of
T.H. Moray. Reich claimed to have discovered a spontaneous pulsatory
activity of the space medium in cold cathode diodes sealed at high
vacuum, and to have achieved oscillatory frequencies that reached 30
Kc (4). He equally claimed to have designed a motor circuit driven by
the cyclic discharge in question, but all the details of the circuits
were kept secret by Reich, and have remained so since the burning and
banning of his publications by the FDA in 1956. His suspicious death
in prison followed shortly thereafter in 1957. M.B. King (5) has
suggested that anomalous lightning balls were produced in corona
discharge tubes designed by T.H.Moray (6), possibly by tuning the
plasma diode to resonate with heavy ion acoustic oscillations (7), but
again the details are scanty. To our knowledge, no one has reproduced
the vacuum experiments of Reich or Moray.

German electromagnetic cannons were retrieved by the Combined
Intelligence Objectives Sub-committee in 1945, which reportedly were
capable of firing lightning balls into the atmosphere (8), and Dr. H.
Aspden has drawn our attention to the efforts of Kapitza, in Russia,
to drive the formation of plasma balls in vacuum tubes with an RF
source (9). Kapitza apparently realized that the energy densities of
lightning balls were of the magnitude required to initiate nuclear
fusion. During the fifties, the US fusion program also investigated
the suitability of utilizing anomalous reaction forces in exploding
wires subject to high current surges and in 'axial pinch' voltage
reactors, to create alternative neutron sources (10).

Admission of longitudinal interactions has always been problematic for
the relativistic law of Lorentz (11), as well as for the Bio-Savart
treatments of Ampere's Law (12). Quantum treatments of (high)
field-emission, such as the Fowler-Nordheim law (strong fields pull
out electrons with low energies, ie Fermi electrons) (13), also did
not take these interactions into account.

Subsequent research in the 1950's concentrated mainly on the study of
cathode and anode spots, as well as on cathode erosion by crater
formation (14-15). Confirmation of Tanberg's longitudinal flow
hypothesis would have to wait until the 1960's, but mass spectrometric
studies carried out by several groups (16-19) indicated that the
atomic particles involved were not neutral atoms, but mostly singly
and multiply charged ions with energies exceeding the total VAD
voltage. Measurements performed by Kimblin (20-22) of the fractional
ion current supplied to the VAD, suggested a nearly invariant
contribution in the order of 6 to 10% of the total VAD current.
Combined with the detection of some neutral atom contributions to this
anomalous reaction flow, these findings caused much initial resistance
among arc physicists.

By the 1960's, it had become apparent that the presence of tremendous
electrodynamic forces acting longitudinally in the direction of the
discharge could not be accounted for by the Lorentz/Bio-Savart Law.
Moreover, as Plyutto et al remarked, the Tanberg vaporization
hypothesis also could not explain the observed dependence of cathode
reaction forces on gas pressure, nor the high velocity plasma streams
emerging from the cathode (18). Plyutto's model of an ambipolar
mechanism, where the electrons sweep the ions forward as a function of
the anomalous rise of potential in front of the cathode spot, while
the spot moves backwards, may well explain the dynamic relation of
these forces, but not their initiation mechanism.

An understanding of the diverse experimental electrodynamic anomalies,
and one that could unify disparate observations at that, would not be
forthcoming however until 1969, when the Journal of the Franklin
Institute published Dr. H. Aspden's seminal paper on his Law of
Electrodynamics (23):

F = (qq'/r3) [(v'.r)v - (m'/m)(v.r)v' - (v.v')r]

where m'/m is the ratio of positive ion mass to electron mass.
Analyzing the proportionality of the current quadrature phenomenon
observed by Tanberg and Kobel in copper and mercury VADs, Aspden
contended that if one took into account the mass ratio between
electric particles of different q/m ratios, an 'out-of-balance'
electrodynamic force would necessarily arise to act along the
discharge path (23). In 1977, Aspden would file a British patent
application (24) utilizing thermal conversion of the high anomalous
acceleration of cathode-directed ions by electrons in VAD plasmas
(25), but his circumstances did not permit him to pursue the work
experimentally (26). Aspden's patent for a VAD-based ion accelerator
and associated energy transfer processes, utilizes advantageously the
anomalous reaction forces developed during ion acceleration to design
a thermoelectric generator that would release the "intrinsic energy"
of the interaction, as well as a coupled cyclotron-type chamber
(devoid of the characteristic D electrodes) for centrifugal
acceleration of the released ions (24).

Mounting evidence for longitudinal electrodynamic forces was then
emerging from the study of relativistic electron beams (27-28),
high-frequency plasma spikes (29-32), anomalous plasma heat transfer
(28, 33-34) and anomalous discharge structures (35). Three possible
plasma instability mechanisms have been discussed in the literature
for the explanation of the observed anomalous energy transfers,
invoking magnetosonic waves (35-36), ion-acoustic plasma instability
modes (37-38) or the vacuum-field effect caused by the Zero-point
energy (ZPE) (39-45). More recently, others have suggested that these
nonlinear interactions, such as the ion-acoustic plasma instabilities,
high density abrupt electrical discharges, and microprotuberance field
emission indicate the presence of resonant coherences with the ZPE

However, all these phenomena were predictable from, and in agreement
with, Aspden's Law - but this fact was simply ignored, even if the
Lorentz's Law could not account for the experimental anomalies
observed when a circuit was closed by distinct fluxes of charge
carriers of different mass., while Aspden's Law effectively did.
Particularly vexing to researchers, was the behaviour of cathodes in
cold VADs and the emergence of the electron distribution required to
satisfy ion production in the gas (48).

Since the 1980's, Aspden's theoretical framework has received
recognition (49-53) and direct or indirect experimental confirmation
(49-50, 54-55). In the mid-eighties, Prof. P. Graneau and his group
showed that electrodynamic explosions induced by kilovolt pulsed ion
discharges in pure water were greater by three to four orders of
magnitude than expected by established theory (54-55). As Aspden
pointed out, these results again should be understood in terms of the
m'/m scaling factor (56-57), but Graneau has rejected this
explanation. Yet, Graneau's proposed model of the alpha-torque forces
(58-59), is not warranted by the findings of Pappas, which instead are
consistent with Aspden's model of electrodynamic action (49).

More recently still, G. Spence has patented an energy conversion
system exploiting the electrodynamic mass ratio difference of
electrons and ions in a magnetic separator and accelerator chamber
having a basic analogy with Aspden's patent (24), but utilizing a
different technique for the centripetal capture of the accelerated
charge carriers, as based on a modification of the betatron principle
that employs an homogeneous magnetic field (60). Spence's device,
however, suffered from periodic breakdown, usually after several hours
of operation, owing to problems believed to be connected with the
thermionic ion-emitter guns (61).

During the same decade, investigation of externally pulsed
electrodynamic anomalies in Russia was in full swing, with the
objective of harnessing a new source of power (62) and, in 1989, the
Novosti Press Agency released news of Prof. A. Chernetskii's design of
a plasma reactor that operated with a "mysterious" regime which was
termed by Chernetskii the "self-generating discharge", and which
appeared to serve as a source of overunity energy, as it allegedly
played havoc with the one megawatt substation driving it (63).

Despite all these rather significant strides in theory and experiment
on the investigation of anomalous electrodynamic interactions, little
in fact has been done, since Tanberg and Kobel, on the investigation
of cathode reaction forces in parallel or coaxial electrode discharges
that involve autoelectronic emission, particularly with respect to the
initiation mechanisms on the unstable region straddling the abnormal
glow discharge (AGD) and the "vacuum"-arc discharge (VAD) regions. At
the time that, at Labofex, we were making the first inroads into this
problem in the wake of our X-ray studies, an interest in this region
was also kindled by the search for high-power switches that might
replace flash-over switches (triggered gas gap breakdown switches),
rotating arc switches and other VAD interrupters.

For planar electrodes having aligned central holes (the so-called
pseudospark channel), it has been shown that a different type of
discharge exists between the Paschen minimum and the vacuum arc
breakdown, having more characteristics in common with the glow
discharge rather than with the VAD, and which has been termed the
pseudospark discharge (64-67). Because of the fast-switching on action
of this discharge, in addition to power switching applications, the
triggered pseudospark discharge has also been utilized as a source of
high-density electron and ion beams, and to generate both laser and
microwave radiation, as well as X-ray flashes (64, 68-70). Coaxial and
multigap pseudospark discharge switches have been designed and
patented which, because of their fast breakdown phase, operate with
anomalously high cold-cathode emissions much greater than possible
with thermionic emission devices (71-72).

Prior to these recent developments in pseudospark discharges, the
cold-cathode abnormal glow discharge (AGD) region had only been
utilized for the uniform transport of vaporised organic coatingsin
vacuo, with externally DC- or AC-pulsed abnormal glow discharges, as
based on a patent by E. Manuel (73). Manuel, who coined the term
Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge, did not employ auto-electronic 'field'
emission to trigger the pulsation of the glow discharge - in fact he
wanted to avoid it, and thereby avoid slippage of the externally
pulsed AGD into a VAD regime- as he intended that only the organic
coating of the cathode, but not the cathode itself, be vaporised.

External pulsation of an electrical field, eg a plasma, may be
achieved by very different methods that belong to well known prior
art: in gas breakdown devices (eg Plasma-pinch accelerators,
Lewis-type or other bombardment engines, and MPD thrusters (74-77)),
as well as in arc discharges (eg. arcjet engines (78)) this may be
typically achieved by the advantageous utilization of the Paschen law
(when the required gap breakdown voltage falls below the applied open
circuit voltage as a function of admission of the gas propellant) or
by the utilization of older methods, ie capacitive or high-frequency
discharges, the latter being apparently Chernetskii's method; the
utilization of externally shaped pulsed DC or AC input waveforms, as
in Manuel's patent (73) is another form of externally switching a
plasma discharge on and off; segmentation of continuous current flow
can also be achieved utilizing any manner of switches, mechanical,
electronic, opto-electronic, plasma discharge-based (glow, pseudospark
or arc switches) or commutators (including contact separation
switches, relays, rotary commutators, etc); finally, as in pseudospark
switches, a trigger electrode receiving an external signal is utilized
to switch on the discharge (71-72).


"Nietzsche, as a critic of science, never invokes the rights of
quality against

quantity; he invokes the rights of difference in quantity against
equality, of

inequality against equalization of quantities. (...) What he attacks

science is precisely the scientific mania for seeking balances, the

utilitarianism and egalitarianism proper to science".

G. Deleuze, 1962

Our point of departure was a serendipitous observation - made while
studying sustained X-ray production - of quasi-regular discontinuities
in glow discharges having a minimal positive column at very high vacua
(10E-5 to 10E-7 Torr) and at low to medium voltages (10-50 kV DC).
These events, which were associated with X-ray bursts, spontaneously
originated localized cathode discharge jets that triggered the plasma
glow in a fashion quite distinct from the flashing of a photocathode
or from an externally pulsed plasma glow. It would soon become
apparent that these discontinuities were elicited by spontaneous
electronic emissions from the cathode under conditions of current
saturation of the plasma glow, and could be triggered with much lower
applied DC field strengths. The discharge was distinct from the VAD
regime in that the plasma channel was self-starting,
self-extinguishing, and the regime was pulsatory (79). In fact the
discharge could be mimicked with externally interrupted VADs,
analogous to chopped current arcs (80-81).

Pulsation of current saturated abnormal glow discharges (AGDs) was
originally described by E. Manuel (73) who utilized externally formed
DC pulses or AC oscillations to drive the cyclic operation of a plasma
discharge tube in the AGD region (see Fig. 1), but in the absence of
auto-electronic emission.

The pulsed plasma discharge regime we had isolated also operated in
the AGD region, but it cycled autogenously between points F-E (Fig. 1)
as a function of being triggered by spontaneous auto-electronic
emissions from the cathode. What characterizes the functioning of the
Correa reactors and differentiates them from all the foregoing arc
emitter devices and the triggered pseudospark switches (PSS), as well
as from Manuel's externally pulsed abnormal glow discharge apparatus,
is the method of the discharge initiation as much as the method of its
extinction. The discharge of interest is a pulsed abnormal glow
discharge, but this pulsation is triggered autogenously at low applied
field by a spontaneous electronic emission under cold-cathode
conditions (80-82). Furthermore, this emission-triggered pulsed
abnormal glow discharge is repetitively cycled in a self-generating or
endogenous action, thus originating quasi-periodic discharge rhythms,
whose frequency depends on a host of identified parameters. Both the
spontaneous electronic emission and the auto-generating aspects of the
discharge are joint cathode and reactor properties affected by
multiple operational and physical conditions, foremost amongst which
figure the metal composition of the cathode (work function), the
negative pressure range, the magnitude of the input current, the large
electrode gap distance, the nature of the residual gases and the
cluster of electrode area effects discovered by the Correas (79-84).

Given the self-pulsing and self-producing characteristics of this
discharge, we have termed this veritable regime of plasma discharge we
have isolated in reactors with diverse geometries designed to
optimalize it (and its volt-ampere characteristic), the
emission-triggered Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge, or autogenous PAGD
for short. The PAGD regime is an homeostatic structure (a fluctuating
order) of cyclically recurring discontinuities. Reactors designed to
operate in the PAGD region of plasma discharge constitute effective
plasma pulse generators with diverse applications (85).

Unlike pseudospark switches, the PAGD events do not need to be
triggered externally or by the interposition of third (trigger)
electrodes, though they can be triggered inductively or
"electrostatically" at prebreakdown potentials. They are in fact
autogenous events where the observed emissions occur at low applied
fields for quasi-regular periods, to generate quasi-regular cathode
current jets. Unlike the PSS, which utilizes intermediate gap
insulators to prevent the degeneration of the discharge into a full
fledged VAD, the PAGD regime in the Correa reactors is
self-extinguishing because of the inability of the discharge to
complete the channel, as promoted by the synergism of the diverse
physical parameters we have identified and analysed (79-82, 85).
Whereas in the PSS switches the discharge channel is formed by the
electrode holes or guides, the incomplete PAGD channel is

The autogenous PAGD regime deploys extraordinarily large cathode
reaction forces, associated with the rebound of anomalously
accelerated ions striking the cathode and the anomalous ion
counterflow (vaporized cathode metal and gas ions) being swept forward
by the emitted electronic flux. The PAGD abnormal reaction forces
depend on the intensity of the electronic-emission events that trigger
the abnormal glow discharge, and are thus rather distinct from the
externally pulsed, emission-independent abnormal glow discharges of
the Manuel apparatus (73). In fact, these forces are virtually absent
in externally pulsed flashover glow regimes, be they normal or

In comparison to VADs, the autogenous PAGD reaction forces also appear
to be much greater. Whereas the particles leaving the cathode in the
Tanberg VAD device had average kinetic energies in the order of 80 to
90 eV (1,18), the particles forming the PAGD vortex have
extraordinarily high energies that have been calculated to reach
0.5->1 MeV (86-88)! And they do so with typical power input
consumptions that are lower by >1 order of magnitude, with cathode
fuel losses <2 orders of magnitude and with vapor velocities >100x
those typically observed in VADs. Because of these characteristics of
the emission-triggered PAGD, the regime transduces anomalous reaction
forces that are 100x greater than those found in VADs (82, 86, 88), in
the range found by Graneau's group for arc-water explosions (54-56,
89). This extraordinary behavior is intimately related to the
incompressible nature of the medium (56) in which the autogenous PAGD
occurs, the ratio of the cathode ion mass to the electron mass (26,
86, 90), and the nature of the plasma regime, particularly the PAGD
extinction mechanism, which prevents the discharge from reaching a
steady-state plasma generation (91). In other words, the PAGD appears
to obey precisely the tenets of Aspden's Law of Electrodynamics.

Given the self-pulsed characteristics of the autogenous PAGD regime,
the pulse generator effectively functions as a simple DC inverter
producing quasi regular large discontinuous "AC" pulses that, once
filtered from the associated DC signal, can be directly utilized to
power and control electromagnetic motors, relays and transformer
circuits. This line of investigation culminated in the patented design
of basic PAGD motor and other inverter circuits (91-92). This was the
origin of the Labofex Motor Drive (LMD) which utilizes innovative
motor principles based upon a total control of the variables affecting
PAGD production (applied voltage, applied current, residual gas
nature, pressure, electrode area, reactive gap distance, electrode
geometry, cathode work-function, etc) (91-92). Similar applications
would soon follow for transmission of the generated impulses across
space, the design of DC inverters and of polyphasic systems (91-92).

Once we had isolated and optimalized this novel plasma discharge
regime with respect to all of its parameters, we found that our
measurement instruments indicated the deployment of discharge energies
greatly exceeding the energy input responsible for the release of the
charged carriers and the initiation of the discharge (91,93). Through
the coupling of a secondary circuit to the PAGD reactor, now made
double-ported, we succeeded in capturing directly, as electrical
power, the anomalous energy deployed by the ion discharge pulses at
the cathode. This was the basis of the XS NRG (Excess Energy)
Conversion System, a patent for which was granted to the authors by
the USPTO in 1995 (90). We had discovered that the PAGD-based abnormal
cathode reaction forces could be used for the generation of power, if
the excess energy that they deployed were electronically captured in a
system effectively functioning as a power generator. Conversion of
energy by creation of plasma instabilities with energies in excess of
breakeven would thus result in the production of power. One arm of the
closed system performs an entropic operation of loss of energy (this
energy is spent in the injection of the pulse generator, to trigger
its spontaneous plasma discharge), while the pulse output is then
captured by a second arm. On the energy balance sheet, the energy
accumulated in the second arm of the system consistently and
substantially exceeds the energy lost by the first arm (88, 90, 93).
Like all known experimental energy-surplus generating processes, such
as the thermonuclear fusion process or the Spence machine (60), energy
has to be spent for energy to be generated through the PAGD plasma
regime. Unlike any other claim that we know of, for a machine capable
of achieving breakeven conditions, the XS NRG results are reproducible
and measurable. In other words, these are experimental results and not
mere theoretical inferences. In fact, unlike many patents we have
discussed above, our patents show explicit and extensive results for
the operation of our energy converter system.

In accordance with Aspden's treatment of the Law of electrodynamics
(23, 56, 95, 97), our invention of the XS NRG Power Generation System
is made possible by the engraftment of the extraordinarily large PAGD
reaction forces transduced by distinct plasma flows, as a surplus of
electric energy in closed charge systems. To borrow the language of
Prigogine, these apparently closed systems give rise to
self-organizing structures that are in fact transiently open physical
systems, when they elicit anomalous reaction forces under specific
conditions of performance. It is as if, through the auto-electronic
metal/plasma interaction and the self-extinguishing characteristic of
the PAGD regime, electrical power is directly squeezed out of metal
'in vacuo', by virtue of a pulsatory interaction with the polarized
'vacuum' field energy.

It is possible that, as Aspden has suggested (94), field polarization
of the vacuum results in reversal of the cyclic motion of the local
space lattice (the ZPE), the displacement of which, in turn, causes
transient resonant vacuum-field states in the system. A closed system
would thus behave as an open system, and it could systematically
develop out-of-balance forces (94-96). To paraphrase Aspden on this
subject, it is the correct interpretation of Newtonian Dynamics and
Newton's 'rule' that prevents us from ignoring the reacting field
environment of electrodynamic interactions, all the more so, when
these interactions develop mutual actions that appear to contravene
Newton's Third Law (97).

In a speculative fashion, it is indeed interesting to remark that the
PAGD energies associated with emitted cathode ions are in the range
needed for electron-positron pair creation. Significantly, the study
of narrow, nonrelativistic positron peaks and of electron-positron
coincidences in heavy ion collisions has led to the identification of
low-mass "photonium" resonances in the 1 to 2 MeV range (lowest
prediction at ~1.2 MeV (99)), which have been theorized as possible
e-e+ quasi-bound continuum states of a pure electromagnetic nature
(98-99), suggesting the existence of a new (ultra-nuclear and
infra-atomic) scale for QED interactions (99). Lastly, it has been
formally shown that pair production can be supported by a photon field
in a nonstationary medium and in a threshold-free manner (ie for any
electromagnetic wave frequency) (100).

From the foregoing, the question obviously arises as to whether there
is any contribution on the part of the locally pervasive Zero-point
vacuum-field energy to the tremendous events elicited during
autogenous PAGD or IVAD functioning of the Correa reactors. In his US
patent (46), K. Shoulders describes an energy conversion system having
some analogies with our own, in that he is able to generate
microscopic coherent charge entities (which he terms EVs, for electrum
vallidum) by a field emission process (utilizing Nothingham heating of
point cathodes or pure field emission mechanisms). By external pulsing
of the discharge field, he theoretically obtains energy outputs that
are greater than the energy input spent in driving the system.
Shoulders has invoked the Zero-point energy of the vacuum as an
explanation for the coherent charge behaviour he has identified in his
studies (46).

While the microscopic Shoulders' EV entities have minimal and maximal
values of 10E8 to 10E11 electron charges, and deploy energies in the
order of 10E7 erg per triggered pulse, the macroscopic energetic
events of the PAGD regime deploy 100-fold greater energies in the
order of 10E9 erg per pulse (86-87, 101).

It is rather likely that the out-of-balance reaction forces observed
in the PAGD plasma reactors are the result of the interaction of the
PAGD/IVAD apparatus with the local fluctuations of the dynamic
vacuum-field. Such behaviour has been described by Aspden, for a
dynamic zero-point field obeying the principles of Quantum
ChromoDynamics (94). Aspden has put forth a model for aether spin as
triggered in response to a radial electric field vector and involving
"inflow of kinetic energy in the aether itself" (102). He has readily
recognized the importance of pulsing the glow discharge and
interrupting the autoelectronic emission, in the context of tapping
the aether spin while denying return of the kinetic energy fed into
field system back to the plenum. Aspden writes (103):

"In other words, what is stored in the spin state as aether input
energy becomes available as electric field energy which can be trapped
by drawing power from the electrodes of the Correa tube. To do this,
it is necessary to have pulsations and here there is an aspect which
warrants theoretical research, but which seems to have already found a
practical solution in the Correa device."
The quantum mechanical treatment proposed by Fowler and Nordheim in
1928 (13) to explain arc initiation in terms of the pulling of
electrons from metals by strong or high fields, has provided a
scientific model for the discrete emission of electrons from the
working cathode which, in this process, apparently violate the
conservation laws, if just for an instant, and tunnel through the
Fermi barrier. However, this quantum mechanical model never adequately
accounted for the experimental evidence concerning arc initiation at
fields and currents lower than those predicted, for arc discharges
which present a Fowler-Nordheim slope. Nor does it account for
operation of the Correa reactors in the autoelectronic
emission-triggered low-field PAGD regime, where the experimental
voltage-current characteristic is the inverse of that obeying the
Fowler-Nordheim relation for high-field emission (79-82).
Rehabilitations of the Fowler-Nordheim treatment, where the
theoretical enhancement factor has been explained in terms of
breakdown produced by heating of cathode microprotuberances (Joule and
Nottingham effects), have been proposed to explain the results of VAD
studies (15, 104), and these findings have been advantageously
employed by Shoulders, in his design of point cathodes for field
emission and for what he terms "pure field emission" (46).

In distinction from quasi-thermionic field emission, the cold-cathode
autoelectronic emission characteristic of the autogenous PAGD and
IVADs appears to employ a different initiation mechanism, as it is
facilitated by large cathode areas rather than points, under the
appropriate conditions of work-function, pressure, input current, etc.

It is likely that there is some relation between the mechanism
responsible for the PAGD regime we have isolated, and its cluster of
area-dependent effects, with the electrode area-dependent transient
voltage instability of the glow discharge plasma recently reported in
low power high-nitrogen/high-helium partial pressure CO2 lasers,
albeit that this lasing instability is non-periodic (105-106). The
periodic and current pulse aspects of the PAGD may in fact be what
explains these nonperiodic lasing voltage spikes, in that their
fortuitous occurrence probably stems from the PAGD threshold
voltage-current characteristics: at low input currents, the
auto-electronic PAGD emission is a rare event (79-82, 91). At these
levels of activity, the deployed reaction forces are minimal or

The anomalous PAGD cathode reaction forces are inextricably linked to
the intermittent ejection of metal plasma jets (from the PAGD cathode)
under optimal conditions of operation in the PAGD regime and to the
cyclic plasma instability that develops tremendous field reactions in
the nonstationary vacuum gap. Independently from whether the PAGD
singularities result from capture of some of the immense reservoir of
energy priming the vacuum (107-108) or from some other unknown
mechanism, cathode spot formation involves a net expenditure of the
cathode metal per event, thus defining a process of fuel consumption
(82, 83, 86, 88, 90).

At our laboratory, Labofex, we have broken new ground in plasma
electrodynamics and in electron emissions from metals. We believe
that, with our work in this field, plasma physics has acquired a new,
practical and affordable significance for power generation, quite
outside of thermonuclear fusion.

More recent developments at Labofex have further broadened the scope
of the XS NRG technology. The design of improved autogenous PAGD
reactors (83, 109), and of reactors capable of physical commutation of
interrupted "vacuum"-arc discharges (IVAD) elicited under low-field
conditions (110-111), has resulted from this ongoing effort.
Utilization of IVADs in the XS NRG Converter System has several mixed
advantages: larger input currents are possible (which the
voltage-current characteristic of the PAGD precludes) with IVADs than
with the PAGD, resulting, under the necessary conditions of operation,
in still larger emission catastrophes; separation of the potential
switch function from the trigger function (which may be
electrodeless), and of both of these from the pulse output function at
the collector, permits the utilization of triggered IVADs reactors
integrated with the XS NRG Converter circuitry (11-113). Utilization
of multireactor XS NRG Systems operating in either the PAGD or the
IVAD regimes can be coupled to create modular power plants (84, 112)
for diverse commercial and industrial applications (114-116).


"It may be concluded that the resolution of this long-standing problem

of the true nature of this basic electrodynamic law is not a mere

academic topic. Some deeper understanding of the law will have

practical consequences in discharge and plasma control."

H. Aspden, 1969

Fig. 1 is an idealized plot of the potential (on a linear but
arbitrary voltage scale) between the principal electrodes of a vacuum
discharge tube with increasing current (on a logarithmic scale in
amperes). Curve A, below its intersection with curve B at point E,
represents a typical relationship between current and voltage for cold
cathode discharges, including auto-electronic emissions, whilst curve
B represents a typical relationship for thermionic glow discharges,
including thermionic emissions. The high-current intersection of the
two curves at point E represents a transition into the vacuum arc
discharge (VAD) region (curve C) with the establishment of a
continuous low resistance plasma channel between the electrodes. With
increasing current from very low levels, curve A presents an initially
rising voltage or "positive resistance" characteristic, through the
Townsend discharge (TD) region, a flat characteristic through the
constant discharge (CD) region, a falling voltage or "negative
resistance" characteristic through the transitional region discharge
(TRD) and normal glow discharge (NGD) regions, to a minimum, before
once again rising to a peak at F and then falling to an even lower
minimum, equal to the sustaining voltage for a vacuum arc discharge,
through the abnormal glow discharge (AGD) region. The rising potential
over the first portion of the AGD region is believed occasioned by
saturation of the electrodes by the glow discharge, which causes the
potential to rise until auto-electronic emission sets in allowing the
potential to fall again as the current rises further. In practice, the
increasing interelectrode potential following saturation, and other
factors such as electrode heating, leading to thermionic emission,
will tend in conventional tubes to result in a premature transition
from the AGD into the VAD regime, following a curve similar to curve D
shown in Fig. 1.

Essentially, the autogenous PAGD regime relies on the use of gas
discharge tubes designed to avoid premature transition from the NGD to
the VAD regimes, and capable of being operated in a stable manner in
that region of the characteristic curve of Figure 1 extending between
points E and F, within the AGD region. The peak F that characterizes
the abnormal discharge region means that as the applied current is
increased linearly within this region, the resistance of the 'vacuum'
medium in the tube first increases with increasing current, only to
subsequently decrease, still with increasing applied current, down to
the minimum resistance value corresponding to the sustaining potential
of a "vacuum" arc. Expressed in terms of resistance characteristics,
the autogenous PAGD regime spans, as a function of applied current, a
subregion in which a positive resistance characteristic changes into a
leading negative resistance characteristic. The pulsed regime of the
AGD is only sustainable when the intensity of the applied current is
greater than that needed to rapidly saturate the plates, but not so
great as to set up a VAD.


1. Tanberg, R (1930) "On the cathode of an arc drawn in vacuum", Phys
Rev, 35:1080.
2. Kobel, E (1930) "Pressure and high vapour jets at the cathodes of a
mercury vacuum arc",Phys Rev, 36:707.
3. Compton, KT (1930) "An interpretation of pressure and high velocity
vapor jets atcathodes of vacuum arcs", Phys Rev. 36:706.
4. Reich, W (1949) "A motor force in Orgone energy: preliminary
communications",OEB, 1:7.
5. King, MB (1989 "Tapping the Zero-Point Energy", Paraclette
Publishing, Provo, Utah.,pages 8, 17.
6. T.H.Moray (1949) "Electrotherapeutic apparatus", USPTO pat.#
7. King, 1989, idem, p.39.
8. Simons, L (1947) "Electromagnetic artillery", German Scientific
Establishments, Report PB19849, Brooklyn, N.Y.
9. Aspden, H (1983) "The thunderball - an electrostatic phenomenon",
Inst of Phys
Conference Series on 'Electrostatics', 66:179.
10. Bishop, AS (1958) "Project Sherwood - the US Program in controlled
fusion", Addison-
Wesley Publishing Co., Mass.
11. Lorentz, HA (1909) "The theory of electrons", Teubner, Leipzig,
12. Tricker, RAR (1965) "Early electrodynamics", Pergamon Press, New
York, NY.
13. Fowler, RH & Nordheim, L (1928)"Electron emission in intense
electric fields", Proc
Roy Soc, A119:878A.
14. Daalder, JE (1974) "Diameter and current density of single and
multiple cathode discharges in a vacuum", IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst,
15. "Vacuum arcs, Theory and application", 1980, Lafferty JM, ed, J.
Wiley & Sons, NewYork, NY.
16. Honig, RE (1964) in Proc.s of the 12th Annual Conference on Mass
Spectroscopy, Montreal, Canada, June 1964, p.233.
17. Franzen, J & Schuy, KD (1965) "Time- and energy-resolved mass
spectroscopy: the condensed vacuum discharge between solid
electrodes", Zeitung Naturforsch, 20a:176.
18. Plyutto, AA et al (1965) "High speed plasma streams in vacuum
arcs", Sov Phys J Exp Theor Phys, 20:328.
19. Davis, WD & Miller, HC (1969) "Analysis of the electrode products
emitted by DC arcs in a vacuum ambient", J Appl Phys, 40:2212.
20. Kimblin, CW (1971) "Vacuum arc ion currents and electrode
phenomena", Proc IEEE, 59:546.
21. Kimblin, CW (1973) "Erosion and ionization phenomena in the
cathode spot regions of vacuum arcs", J Appl Phys, 44:3074.
22. Kimblin, CW (1971) "Cathode spot erosion and ionization phenomena
in the transition from vacuum to atmospheric pressure arcs", J Appl
Phys, 45:5235.
23. Aspden, H (1969) "The Law of Electrodynamics", J Franklin Inst,
24. Aspden, H (1978) "Ion accelerators and energy transfer processes",
UK pat.# 2,002,953.
25. Aspden, H (1977) "Electrodynamic anomalies in arc discharge
phenomena", IEEE Trans Plasma Sci, PS-5:159
26. Aspden, H (1996) "Power from Space: the Correa Invention", Energy
Science Report No.8, Sabberton Publications, Southampton, England.
27. Sethian JD et al (1978) "Anomalous electron-ion energy transfer in
a relativistic-electron- beam-heated plasma", Phys Rev Lett, 40:451.
28. Morrow, DL et al (1971) "Concentration and guidance of intense
relativistic electron beams", Appl Phys Lett, 19:441.
29. Iguchi, H (1978) "Initial state of turbulent heating of plasmas",
J Phys Soc Jpn, 45:1364.
30. Zavoiskii, EK et al (1971) "Advances in research on turbulent
heating of a plasma", Proc.s of 4th Conference on Plasma Physics and
Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, pp. 3-24.
31. Hirose, A (1973) "Fluctuation measurements in a toroidal turbulent
heating device", Phys Can, 29:14.
32. Porkolab, M et al (1973) "Parametric instabilities and anomalous
absorption and heating in magnetoplasmas", Int. Congress on Waves and
Instabilities in Plasmas, Inst. Theoret. Phys., Innsbruck, Austria.
33. Tanaka, M & Kawai, Y (1979) "Electron heating by ion accoustic
turbulence in plasmas", J Phys Soc Jpn, 47:294.
34. Robertson, S et al (1980) "Electron beam heating of a mirror
confined plasma", Phys Fluids, 32:318
35. Harris, LP (1980) "Arc Cathode Phenomena", in "Vacuum arcs, Theory
and application", Lafferty JM, ed, p.120&f, J. Wiley & Sons, NY.
36. Ekdahl, C et al (1974) "Heating of a fully ionized plasma cloud by
a relativistic electron beam", Phys Rev Lett, 33:346.
37. Chu, KR et al (1975) "Ion heating by expansion of beam-heated
plasma", Phys Rev Lett, 35:94.
38. Breizman, BN & Ryutov, DD (1974) "Powerful relativistic electron
beams in a plasma and in a vacuum (theory)", Nucl Fusion, 14:873.
39. Lovelace, RV & Sudan, RN (1971) "Plasma heating by high current
relativistic electron beams", 27:1256.
40. Senitzky, IR (1973) "Radiation-reaction and vacuum-field effects
in Heisenberg-picture quantum electrodynamics", Phys Rev Lett, 31:955.
41. Boyer, TH (1975) "Random electrodynamics: the theory of classical
electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic Zero-point radiation",
Phys Rev D, 11:790.
42. Boyer, TH (1980) "Thermal effects of acceleration through random
classical radiation", Phys Rev D, 21:2137.
43. Boyer, TH (1980) "A brief survey of stochastic electrodynamics",
in "Foundations of radiation theory and quantum electrodynamics",
Barut, AO, ed., Plenum Press, pp. 49-63.
44. Boyer, TH (1985) "The classical vacuum", Sc American, Aug:70.
45. Puthoff, HE (1989) "Source of vacuum electromagnetic Zero-point
energy", Phys Rev A, 40:4857.
46. Shoulders, KR (1991) "Energy conversion using high charge
density", U.S. Patent #5,018,180.
47. King, MB (1992) "Progress and results in Zero-point energy
research", in Proc.s of the 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion
Engineering Conference, San Diego, Aug 3-7, Eyring Corp.
48. Von Engel, A (1965) "Ionized gases", Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford,
UK, pp. 273 & 285.
49. Pappas, PT (1983) "The original Ampere force and Bio-Savart and
Lorentz forces", Il Nuovo Cimento, 76B:189.
50. Aspden, H (1984) "Boson creation in a subquantum lattice", Lett
Nuovo Cimento, 40:53.
51. Theocharis, T (1983) "On Maxwell's ether", Lett Nuovo Cimento,
52. Wells, DR & Bourois, M (1989) "Quantization effects in the plasma
universe", IEEE Trans on Plasma Sc, 17:270.
53. Assis, AK & Clemente, RA (1992) " ", Int J Theoretical Phys,
54. Azevedo, R et al (1986) "Powerful water-plasma explosions", Phys
Lett A, 117:101.
55. Graneau, P & Graneau, PN (1985), "Electrodynamic explosions in
liquids", Appl Phys Lett, 46:470.
56. Aspden, H (1985) "A new perspective on the Law of
Electrodynamics", Phys Lett, 111A:22.
57. Aspden, H (1986) "Anomalous electrodynamic explosions in
liquids",IEEE Trans Plasma Sc, PS-14:282.
58. Graneau, P (1985) "Ampere-Neumann electrodynamics of metals",
Hadronic Press, Nonantum.
59. Graneau, P (1989) "Alpha-torque forces", Electr & Wireless World,
60. Spence, G (1988) "Energy conversion system", U.S.Patent
61. Personal communication of Dr. Aspden to Dr. Correa.
62. "Soviets strive to close the gap in pulsed-power research", Rand
Res Rev, 1986, 10:1.
63. Samokhin, A (1989)"Vacuum energy - a breakthrough?", Novosti Press
Release No. 03NTO-890717CM04.
64. Bloess, D et al (1983) "The triggered pseudospark chamber as a
fast switch and as a high- intensity beam source", Nucl Instrum
Methods, 205:173.
65. Kirkman, GF & Gundersen, MA (1986) "Low pressure, light initiated,
glow discharge switch for high power applications", Appl Phys Lett,
66. Frank, et al (1988) "High-power pseudospark and BLT switches",
IEEE trans Plasma Sci, 16:317.
67. Frank, et al (1989) "The fundamentals of the pseudospark and its
applications", IEEE Trans Plasma Sci, 17:748.
68. Bauer, et al (1987) "High power pseudospark as an X-ray source",
in Proc.s of the 18th Int Conf in Ion Gases, Swansea, UK, p.4.
69. Christiansen, J et al (1985) "Pulsed laser oscillation at 488.0 nm
and 514.5 nm in an Ar- He pseudospark discharge", Optics Comm, 56:39.
70. Gundlach, J (1986) "Microwave-excitation by a pseudospark electron
beam", M.Sc. Thesis, Physics Institute, Univ. of Dusselforf,
71. Merchtersheimer, G & Kohler, R(1987) "Multichannel pseudospark
switch (MUPS)", J Phys, 'E', 20:270.
72. Dethlefsen, R (1992) "Coaxial Pseudospark discharge switch",
U.S.Patent #5,126,638.
73. Manuel, E (1969) "Method of forming a flexible organic flexible
layer on metal by a pulsed electrical abnormal glow discharge", U.S.
Patent 3,471,316.
74. Duclos, DP et al (1963) "Diagnostic studies of a pinch plasma
accelerator", AIAA J, 1:2505.
75. Davis, JW et al (1963) "Plasma behavior in an oscillating-electron
ion engine", AIAA J, 1:2497.
76. King, HJ et al (1963) "Lewis type bombardment ion engine:DC and
pulsed operation", AIAA J, 1:2661.
77. Sheshadri, TS (1991) "Electromagnetic force density distribution
in MPD thrusters", Vacuum, 42:923.
78. John, RR et al (1963) "Arcjet engine performance: experiment and
theory", AIAA J, 1:2517.
79. Correa, PN & Correa, AN (1991)"The engineering, construction and
cold cathode regimes of plasma discharge in LGEN pulse generator
devices: a novel, low-field, spontaneous emission-triggered pulsed
abnormal glow discharge regime", LABOFEX Scientific Report Series,
80. Correa, PN & Correa, AN (1992)"Pulse Generator", Canada patent
pending, filed 1992.
81. Correa PN & Correa AN (1994) "Pulse generator", W.I.P.O, Geneva,
Switzerland, IPN: WO 94/03918.
82. Correa PN & Correa AN (1996) "Direct current energized pulse
generator utilizing autogenous cyclical pulsed abnormal glow
discharge", USPTO, Pat.# 5,502,354, U.S.A.
83. Correa, PN & Correa, AN (1993) "Further Development of Labofex
pulse generators and related technology", LABOFEX Technical Report
Series, S2-001.
84. Correa, PN & Correa, AN (1993) "Design of basic XS NRG power
modules", LABOFEX Technical Report Series, S2-003.
85. Correa, PN & Correa AN (1996) "Other applications of the PAGD
technology besides energy conversion", Infinite Energy, 7:22-27.
86. Correa, P & Correa, AN (1993) "Metallographic and energy density
studies of different cathodes subject to a PAGD regime in vacuum",
LABOFEX Scientific Report Series, S1-007.
87. Correa, P & Correa, AN (1993) "Oscilloscopic studies of PAGD power
profiles, at the Correa reactors, and at the input and output to the
XS NRG System" LABOFEX Scientific Report Series, S1-008.
88. Correa PN & Correa AN (1996) "Excess energy (XS NRG) conversion
system utilizing autogenous pulsed abnormal glow discharge (PAGD)",
Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. New Energy, Denver, Colorado, pp. 43-62.
89. Graneau, P (1987) "Wire explosions", Phys Lett A, 120:77.
90. Correa PN & Correa AN (1995) "Energy conversion system", USPTO,
Pat.# 5,449,989, U.S.A.
91. Correa, PN & Correa, AN (1990)"Direct electromotive transduction
of a pulsed field- emission abnormal glow discharge regime in LGEN
devices", LABOFEX Scientific Report Series, S1-004.
92. Correa PN & Correa AN (1995) "Electromechanical transduction of
plasma pulses", USPTO, Pat.# 5,416,391, U.S.A.
93. Correa, PN & Correa, AN (1991) "The practical detection and
accumulation of the excess energy transduced by a self-pulsed
field-emission abnormal glow discharge regime in autogenous PAGD
reactors, and its capture in a novel energy converter system", LABOFEX
Scientific Report Series S1-006.
94. Aspden, H (1983) "Planar boundaries of the space-time lattice",
Lett Nuovo Cimento, 38:243.
95. Aspden, H (1980) "Physics Unified", Sabberton Publications,
Southampton, England, pp. 3-23, 30-36.
96. Aspden, H (1987) "The exploding wire phenomenon as an inductive
effect", Phys Lett A, 120:80.
97. Aspden, H (1993) "The Law of perpetual motion", Phys. Educ.,
98. Traska, W et al (1991) "Search for resonant electron-positron
annihilation-in-flight", Phys Lett B, 269:54.
99. Spence, JR & Vary, JP (1991) "Electron-positron scattering
resonances from relativistic two-body wave equations", Phys Lett B,
100. Avetisyan, GK et al (1991) "Electron-positive pair production by
a tranverse electromagnetic field in a nonstationary medium", Sov Phys
JETP, 73:44.
101. Correa, PN & Correa, AN (1995) "Anomalous cathode reaction forces
in the PAGD&VAD regimes", LABOFEX Scientific Report Series S1-022.
102. Aspden, H (1996) "Vacuum Spin", Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. New Energy,
Denver, Colorado, pp. 1-20.
103. Aspden, H (1996) "Power from Space: the Correa Invention", Energy
Science Report No.8, Sabberton Publications, Southampton, England, pp.
104. Alston, LL (1968) "High voltage technology", Oxford Univ. Press,
Oxford, England.
105. Tsui, KH et al (1993) "Influence of the unstable glow discharge
plasma state on the CW CO2 laser output", Quantum Electr Lett,
106. Huang, YK et al (1991) "Output power constancy of a high nitrogen
partial pressure carbon dioxide laser with variable total pressure",
Chinese J Lasers, 18:646.
107. Aspden, H (1975) "Gravitation", Sabberton Publications,
Southampton, England.
108. Cole, DC & Puthoff, HE (1993) "Extracting energy and heat from
the vacuum", Phys Rev E, 48:1562.
109. Correa, P & Correa, AN (1993) "Advanced Coaxial LGEN reactor
designs", LABOFEX Scientific Report Series #1-015.
110. Correa, P & Correa, AN (1993) "Utilization of interrupted
"vacuum"-arc discharges in the XS NRG Converter System", LABOFEX
Scientific Report Series S1-014.
111. Correa PN & Correa AN (1994) "Energy conversion system", W.I.P.O,
Geneva, Switzerland, IPN: WO 94/09560.
112. Correa, P & Correa, AN (1993) "Circuit fundamentals of the XS NRG
power modules", LABOFEX Scientific Report Series, S1-012.
113. Correa, P & Correa, AN (1993) "Design of XS NRG electronic
switching modules", LABOFEX Technical Report Series, S2-007.
114. Correa, P & Correa, AN (1993) "Design of XS NRG powered HVAC
modules", LABOFEX Technical Report Series, S2-004.
115. Correa, P & Correa, AN (1993) "Design of XS NRG autonomous
electric vehicles", LABOFEX Technical Report Series, S2-005.
116. Correa, P & Correa, AN (1993) "Design of XS NRG powered
autonomous building modules", LABOFEX Technical Report Series, S2-006.