Quote:

" As the number of electrons N decreases, the statistical fluctualtions

in the number becomes an increasing fraction of the total, limiting

circuit performance and making circuit design more difficult.

".

this doesn't prevent me from further reading, just wonder what

statistical fluctualtions actually mean, in simple language.

The bigger your sample is, the closer your estimate of [something] is to

the estimate that you would make with subsequent large samples.

You're probably most accustomed to [something] being the average of some

measurement of the sample, so consider an average weight. If you take

the average weight of samples of, say, five people at a time then the

results depend a lot on which five people you choose this time as

opposed to next time, and your sample to sample variation will be large.

If, on the other hand, you weight people in groups of 500 then you would

intuitively expect that the average weights of successive groups would

be closer to each other than the average weights of the groups with just

five people each. (For this statistic, it turns out that the expected

value of the spread of the average will scale by the square root of the

number of samples but that's not really germane here.)

So, turning it around, starting with mean weights determined by samples

from large groups, the fluctuation in the results will be greater when

the number of samples include in each group is reduced.