# The Microwave Magnetron Tube Structure and OperationThe Magnetron Tube

B

#### Br Dan Izzo

Jan 1, 1970
0
The Microwave Magnetron Tube
Structure and Operation

The heart of every microwave oven is the high voltage system . Its
purpose is to generate microwave energy. The high-voltage components
accomplish this by stepping up AC line voltage to high voltage, which
is then changed to an even higher DC voltage. This DC power is then
converted to the RF energy that cooks the food.

Basic Magnetron Structure
The nucleus of the high-voltage system is the magnetron tube . The
magnetron is a diode-type electron tube which is used to produce the
required 2450 MHz of microwave energy. It is classed as a diode
because it has no grid as does an ordinary electron tube. A magnetic
field imposed on the space between the anode (plate) and the cathode
serves as the grid. While the external configurations of different
magnetrons will vary, the basic internal structures are the same.
These include the anode, the filament/cathode, the antenna, and the
magnets
The ANODE (or plate) is a hollow cylinder of iron from which an even
number of anode vanes extend inward (see Fig. 2). The open trapezoidal
shaped areas between each of the vanes are resonant cavities that
serve as tuned circuits and determine the output frequency of the
tube. The anode operates in such a way that alternate segments must be
connected, or strapped, so that each segment is opposite in polarity
to the segment on either side. In effect, the cavities are connected
in parallel with regard to the output. This will become easier to
understand as the description of operation is considered.

The FILAMENT (also called heater), which also serves as the cathode of
the tube, is located in the center of the magnetron, and is supported
by the large and rigid filament leads, which are carefully sealed into
the tube and shielded.

The ANTENNA is a probe or loop that is connected to the anode and
extends into one of the tuned cavities. The antenna is coupled to the
waveguide , a hollow metal enclosure, into which the antenna transmits
the RF energy.

The MAGNETIC FIELD is provided by strong permanent magnets, which are
mounted around the magnetron so that the magnetic field is parallel
with the axis of the cathode.

Basic Magnetron Operation
The theory of magnetron operation is based on the motion of electrons
under the combined influence of electric and magnetic fields. For the
tube to operate, electrons must flow from the cathode to the anode.
There are two fundamental laws that govern their trajectory:
The force exerted by an electric field on an electron is proportional
to the strength of the field. Electrons tend to move from a point of
negative potential toward a positive potential. Figure 3-A shows the
uniform and direct movement of the electrons in an electric field with
no magnetic field present, from the negative cathode to the positive
anode.
The force exerted on an electron in a magnetic field is at right
angles to both the field itself, and to the path of the electron. The
direction of the force is such that the electron proceeds to the anode
in a curve rather than a direct path.
Effect of the Magnetic Field
In Figure 3-B two permanent magnets are added above and below the tube
structure. In Figure 3-C, assume the upper magnet is a north pole and
you are viewing from that position. The lower, south pole magnet, is
located underneath the page, so that the magnetic field appears to be
coming right through the page. Just as electrons flowing through a
conductor cause a magnetic field to build up around that conductor, so
an electron moving through space tends to build up a magnetic field
around itself. On one side (left) of the electron's path, this self
induced magnetic field adds to the permanent magnetic field
surrounding it. On the other side (right) of its path, it has the
opposite effect of subtracting from the permanent magnetic field. The
magnetic field on the right side is therefore weakened, and the
electron's trajectory bends in that direction, resulting in a circular
motion of travel to the anode.
The process begins with a low voltage being applied to the filament,
which causes it to heat up (filament voltage is usually 3 to 4 VAC,
depending on the make and model). Remember, in a magnetron tube, the
filament is also the cathode. The temperature rise causes increased
molecular activity within the cathode, to the extent that it begins to
"boil off" or emit electrons. Electrons leaving the surface of a
heated filament wire might be compared to molecules that leave the
surface of boiling water in the form of steam. Unlike steam, though,
the electrons do not evaporate. They float, or hover, just off the
surface of the cathode, waiting for some momentum.

Electrons, being negative charges, are strongly repelled by other
negative charges. So this floating cloud of electrons would be
repelled away from a negatively charged cathode. The distance and
velocity of their travel would increase with the intensity of the
applied negative charge. Momentum is thus provided by a negative 4000
volts DC, which is produced by means of the high-voltage transformer
and the doubler action of the high-voltage diode and capacitor . (4000
volts is an average. The actual voltage varies with make and model.) A
negative 4000 volt potential on the cathode puts a corresponding
positive 4000 volt potential on the anode. Needless to say, the
electrons blast off from the cathode like tiny rockets. They
accelerate straight toward the positive anode, or, at least they try
to.

As the electrons hasten toward their objective, they encounter the
powerful magnetic field of two permanent magnets . These are
positioned so that their magnetic fields are applied parallel to the
cathode. The effect of the magnetic fields tends to deflect the
speeding electrons away from the anode, as described in page one . The
illustration to the right shows the combined effect of the electric
and the magnetic fields on the electrons' trajectory. Instead of
traveling straight to the anode, they curve to a path at almost right
angles to their previous direction, resulting in an expanding circular
orbit around the cathode, which eventually reaches the anode.

The whirling cloud of electrons, influenced by the high voltage and
the strong magnetic field, form a rotating pattern that resembles the
spokes in a spinning wheel, as shown in Figure 4 . The interaction of
this rotating space-charge wheel with the configuration of the surface
of the anode produces an alternating current flow in the resonant
cavities of the anode. This is explained as follows. As a "spoke" of
electrons approaches an anode vane (or the segment between the two
cavities), it induces a positive charge in that segment. As the
electrons pass, the positive charge diminishes in the first segment
while another positive charge is being induced in the next segment.
Current is induced because the physical structure of the anode forms
the equivalent of a series of high-Q resonant inductive-capacitive
(LC) circuits. The effect of the strapping of alternate segments is to
connect the LC circuits in parallel.

Next:Resonant Circuits...

The heart of every microwave oven is the high voltage system . Its
purpose is to generate microwave energy. The high-voltage components
accomplish this by stepping up AC line voltage to high voltage, which
is then changed to an even higher DC voltage. This DC power is then
converted to the RF energy that cooks the food.

Basic Magnetron Structure
The nucleus of the high-voltage system is the magnetron tube . The
magnetron is a diode-type electron tube which is used to produce the
required 2450 MHz of microwave energy. It is classed as a diode
because it has no grid as does an ordinary electron tube. A magnetic
field imposed on the space between the anode (plate) and the cathode
serves as the grid. While the external configurations of different
magnetrons will vary, the basic internal structures are the same.
These include the anode, the filament/cathode, the antenna, and the
magnets
The ANODE (or plate) is a hollow cylinder of iron from which an even
number of anode vanes extend inward (see Fig. 2). The open trapezoidal
shaped areas between each of the vanes are resonant cavities that
serve as tuned circuits and determine the output frequency of the
tube. The anode operates in such a way that alternate segments must be
connected, or strapped, so that each segment is opposite in polarity
to the segment on either side. In effect, the cavities are connected
in parallel with regard to the output. This will become easier to
understand as the description of operation is considered.

The FILAMENT (also called heater), which also serves as the cathode of
the tube, is located in the center of the magnetron, and is supported
by the large and rigid filament leads, which are carefully sealed into
the tube and shielded.

The ANTENNA is a probe or loop that is connected to the anode and
extends into one of the tuned cavities. The antenna is coupled to the
waveguide , a hollow metal enclosure, into which the antenna transmits
the RF energy.

The MAGNETIC FIELD is provided by strong permanent magnets, which are
mounted around the magnetron so that the magnetic field is parallel
with the axis of the cathode.

Basic Magnetron Operation
The theory of magnetron operation is based on the motion of electrons
under the combined influence of electric and magnetic fields. For the
tube to operate, electrons must flow from the cathode to the anode.
There are two fundamental laws that govern their trajectory:
The force exerted by an electric field on an electron is proportional
to the strength of the field. Electrons tend to move from a point of
negative potential toward a positive potential. Figure 3-A shows the
uniform and direct movement of the electrons in an electric field with
no magnetic field present, from the negative cathode to the positive
anode.
The force exerted on an electron in a magnetic field is at right
angles to both the field itself, and to the path of the electron. The
direction of the force is such that the electron proceeds to the anode
in a curve rather than a direct path.
Effect of the Magnetic Field
In Figure 3-B two permanent magnets are added above and below the tube
structure. In Figure 3-C, assume the upper magnet is a north pole and
you are viewing from that position. The lower, south pole magnet, is
located underneath the page, so that the magnetic field appears to be
coming right through the page. Just as electrons flowing through a
conductor cause a magnetic field to build up around that conductor, so
an electron moving through space tends to build up a magnetic field
around itself. On one side (left) of the electron's path, this self
induced magnetic field adds to the permanent magnetic field
surrounding it. On the other side (right) of its path, it has the
opposite effect of subtracting from the permanent magnetic field. The
magnetic field on the right side is therefore weakened, and the
electron's trajectory bends in that direction, resulting in a circular
motion of travel to the anode.
The process begins with a low voltage being applied to the filament,
which causes it to heat up (filament voltage is usually 3 to 4 VAC,
depending on the make and model). Remember, in a magnetron tube, the
filament is also the cathode. The temperature rise causes increased
molecular activity within the cathode, to the extent that it begins to
"boil off" or emit electrons. Electrons leaving the surface of a
heated filament wire might be compared to molecules that leave the
surface of boiling water in the form of steam. Unlike steam, though,
the electrons do not evaporate. They float, or hover, just off the
surface of the cathode, waiting for some momentum.

Electrons, being negative charges, are strongly repelled by other
negative charges. So this floating cloud of electrons would be
repelled away from a negatively charged cathode. The distance and
velocity of their travel would increase with the intensity of the
applied negative charge. Momentum is thus provided by a negative 4000
volts DC, which is produced by means of the high-voltage transformer
and the doubler action of the high-voltage diode and capacitor . (4000
volts is an average. The actual voltage varies with make and model.) A
negative 4000 volt potential on the cathode puts a corresponding
positive 4000 volt potential on the anode. Needless to say, the
electrons blast off from the cathode like tiny rockets. They
accelerate straight toward the positive anode, or, at least they try
to.

As the electrons hasten toward their objective, they encounter the
powerful magnetic field of two permanent magnets . These are
positioned so that their magnetic fields are applied parallel to the
cathode. The effect of the magnetic fields tends to deflect the
speeding electrons away from the anode, as described in page one . The
illustration to the right shows the combined effect of the electric
and the magnetic fields on the electrons' trajectory. Instead of
traveling straight to the anode, they curve to a path at almost right
angles to their previous direction, resulting in an expanding circular
orbit around the cathode, which eventually reaches the anode.

The whirling cloud of electrons, influenced by the high voltage and
the strong magnetic field, form a rotating pattern that resembles the
spokes in a spinning wheel, as shown in Figure 4 . The interaction of
this rotating space-charge wheel with the configuration of the surface
of the anode produces an alternating current flow in the resonant
cavities of the anode. This is explained as follows. As a "spoke" of
electrons approaches an anode vane (or the segment between the two
cavities), it induces a positive charge in that segment. As the
electrons pass, the positive charge diminishes in the first segment
while another positive charge is being induced in the next segment.
Current is induced because the physical structure of the anode forms
the equivalent of a series of high-Q resonant inductive-capacitive
(LC) circuits. The effect of the strapping of alternate segments is to
connect the LC circuits in parallel.

Next:Resonant Circuits...

The heart of every microwave oven is the high voltage system . Its
purpose is to generate microwave energy. The high-voltage components
accomplish this by stepping up AC line voltage to high voltage, which
is then changed to an even higher DC voltage. This DC power is then
converted to the RF energy that cooks the food.

Basic Magnetron Structure
The nucleus of the high-voltage system is the magnetron tube . The
magnetron is a diode-type electron tube which is used to produce the
required 2450 MHz of microwave energy. It is classed as a diode
because it has no grid as does an ordinary electron tube. A magnetic
field imposed on the space between the anode (plate) and the cathode
serves as the grid. While the external configurations of different
magnetrons will vary, the basic internal structures are the same.
These include the anode, the filament/cathode, the antenna, and the
magnets
The ANODE (or plate) is a hollow cylinder of iron from which an even
number of anode vanes extend inward (see Fig. 2). The open trapezoidal
shaped areas between each of the vanes are resonant cavities that
serve as tuned circuits and determine the output frequency of the
tube. The anode operates in such a way that alternate segments must be
connected, or strapped, so that each segment is opposite in polarity
to the segment on either side. In effect, the cavities are connected
in parallel with regard to the output. This will become easier to
understand as the description of operation is considered.

The FILAMENT (also called heater), which also serves as the cathode of
the tube, is located in the center of the magnetron, and is supported
by the large and rigid filament leads, which are carefully sealed into
the tube and shielded.

The ANTENNA is a probe or loop that is connected to the anode and
extends into one of the tuned cavities. The antenna is coupled to the
waveguide , a hollow metal enclosure, into which the antenna transmits
the RF energy.

The MAGNETIC FIELD is provided by strong permanent magnets, which are
mounted around the magnetron so that the magnetic field is parallel
with the axis of the cathode.

Basic Magnetron Operation
The theory of magnetron operation is based on the motion of electrons
under the combined influence of electric and magnetic fields. For the
tube to operate, electrons must flow from the cathode to the anode.
There are two fundamental laws that govern their trajectory:
The force exerted by an electric field on an electron is proportional
to the strength of the field. Electrons tend to move from a point of
negative potential toward a positive potential. Figure 3-A shows the
uniform and direct movement of the electrons in an electric field with
no magnetic field present, from the negative cathode to the positive
anode.
The force exerted on an electron in a magnetic field is at right
angles to both the field itself, and to the path of the electron. The
direction of the force is such that the electron proceeds to the anode
in a curve rather than a direct path.
Effect of the Magnetic Field
In Figure 3-B two permanent magnets are added above and below the tube
structure. In Figure 3-C, assume the upper magnet is a north pole and
you are viewing from that position. The lower, south pole magnet, is
located underneath the page, so that the magnetic field appears to be
coming right through the page. Just as electrons flowing through a
conductor cause a magnetic field to build up around that conductor, so
an electron moving through space tends to build up a magnetic field
around itself. On one side (left) of the electron's path, this self
induced magnetic field adds to the permanent magnetic field
surrounding it. On the other side (right) of its path, it has the
opposite effect of subtracting from the permanent magnetic field. The
magnetic field on the right side is therefore weakened, and the
electron's trajectory bends in that direction, resulting in a circular
motion of travel to the anode.
The process begins with a low voltage being applied to the filament,
which causes it to heat up (filament voltage is usually 3 to 4 VAC,
depending on the make and model). Remember, in a magnetron tube, the
filament is also the cathode. The temperature rise causes increased
molecular activity within the cathode, to the extent that it begins to
"boil off" or emit electrons. Electrons leaving the surface of a
heated filament wire might be compared to molecules that leave the
surface of boiling water in the form of steam. Unlike steam, though,
the electrons do not evaporate. They float, or hover, just off the
surface of the cathode, waiting for some momentum.

Electrons, being negative charges, are strongly repelled by other
negative charges. So this floating cloud of electrons would be
repelled away from a negatively charged cathode. The distance and
velocity of their travel would increase with the intensity of the
applied negative charge. Momentum is thus provided by a negative 4000
volts DC, which is produced by means of the high-voltage transformer
and the doubler action of the high-voltage diode and capacitor . (4000
volts is an average. The actual voltage varies with make and model.) A
negative 4000 volt potential on the cathode puts a corresponding
positive 4000 volt potential on the anode. Needless to say, the
electrons blast off from the cathode like tiny rockets. They
accelerate straight toward the positive anode, or, at least they try
to.

As the electrons hasten toward their objective, they encounter the
powerful magnetic field of two permanent magnets . These are
positioned so that their magnetic fields are applied parallel to the
cathode. The effect of the magnetic fields tends to deflect the
speeding electrons away from the anode, as described in page one . The
illustration to the right shows the combined effect of the electric
and the magnetic fields on the electrons' trajectory. Instead of
traveling straight to the anode, they curve to a path at almost right
angles to their previous direction, resulting in an expanding circular
orbit around the cathode, which eventually reaches the anode.

The whirling cloud of electrons, influenced by the high voltage and
the strong magnetic field, form a rotating pattern that resembles the
spokes in a spinning wheel, as shown in Figure 4 . The interaction of
this rotating space-charge wheel with the configuration of the surface
of the anode produces an alternating current flow in the resonant
cavities of the anode. This is explained as follows. As a "spoke" of
electrons approaches an anode vane (or the segment between the two
cavities), it induces a positive charge in that segment. As the
electrons pass, the positive charge diminishes in the first segment
while another positive charge is being induced in the next segment.
Current is induced because the physical structure of the anode forms
the equivalent of a series of high-Q resonant inductive-capacitive
(LC) circuits. The effect of the strapping of alternate segments is to
connect the LC circuits in parallel.

Next:Resonant Circuits...

D

#### Dbowey

Jan 1, 1970
0
Is there a question somewhere there or do you just have diarrhea of the brain
and fingers?

J

#### Julie

Jan 1, 1970
0
Dbowey said:
Is there a question somewhere there or do you just have diarrhea of the brain
and fingers?

What a moronic response. I think that your reply has much more to do w/ you
than the op.

K

#### Ken Taylor

Jan 1, 1970
0
Julie said:
What a moronic response. I think that your reply has much more to do w/ you
than the op.

I think the response was quite on the mark - it was a lame-o troll post.

B

#### Br Dan Izzo

Jan 1, 1970
0
Ken Taylor said:
I think the response was quite on the mark - it was a lame-o troll post.

hii;

i cut and pasted the microwave tube info from cd with the same title,
the pasted
page didn't list the autors, i paid $29 for this cd it is a great cd for people interested in ELECTRONICS of microwave generator like me C #### Captain Blammo Jan 1, 1970 0 i cut and pasted the microwave tube info from cd with the same title, the pasted page didn't list the autors, i paid$29 for this cd it is a great cd
for people interested in ELECTRONICS of microwave generator like me

I certainly found it interesting.Thanks for the post!

Ewan

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