Steve. Your queries are perfectly logical. I know cos I've been down the

same path and never got a straightforward answer.

Problem is that VI phasing is a circuit aspect that's quite awkward to

mentally grasp or visually model what's going on in the first place, even

less to describe it in words.

The resistor doesn't care about any phase difference that exists elsewhere.

The resistor will develop a voltage across itself in sympathy with the

current through it. I.e Its volts and amps are in phase, measured -at- the

resistor.

But ... to complicate things, adding that resistor changes all the other VI

phasing angles throughout the whole of the rest of the network

Electrolytics are not perfect and electrically look like a cap and (small)

resistor in series. Here though, it just confuses the issue.

Getting ones head round the VI phase displacements in even a very simple

reactive network is nigh on impossible. -Everything- depends on everything

else in the circuit. Mentally you have forget Ohms law and try to step

rotate your imagery, through parts of a circle as each component is looked

at in turn. Sinewaves are an appalling shape to mentally deal with.

With massive effort it is sometimes possible to get a grip.

Most humans drop out at this point and either give up the electronics

subject completely, start to draw phasor diagrams or turn to the maths such

as J notation, Laplace etc. Which although giving little understanding does

at least give answers.

Add just a couple more reactive components and even the most hair shirted

mathematicians start to run for their Spice programmes.

regards

john