Transistors make excellent electronic switches. They can turn currents on and off billions of times per second. Digital computers use transistors as a basic mechanism for storing and moving data.
A transistor is a special type of solid-state device that regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals. Transistors consist of three layers of semiconductor material, each capable of carrying a current.
It is a three-terminal semiconductor device, and the terminals are E(Emitter), B (Base) & C (Collector). The transistor can work in three different regions like active region, cutoff region & saturation region. Transistors are turned off while working in the cut-off region and turned on while working in the saturation region.
Transistors work as an amplifier while they work in the active region. The main function of a transistor as an amplifier is to enhance the input signal without changing much or distortion.
Two Basic Type of Transistor PNP and NPN
The construction and terminal voltages for an NPN type of transistor are shown above. The PNP Transistor has very similar characteristics to their NPN bipolar cousins mostly the analog parameters are also same in both, except that the polarities (or biasing) of the current and voltage directions are reversed for any one of the possible three configurations
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