In this project, I converted an old gaming controller to make it compatible to play PC games.

Step 2: Circuit Diagram and Key Mapping

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Connect all the components according to the circuit diagram (1st image) given above.

I would recommend to first check all the connections and working on a breadboard.

Key mapping :

The layout of my actual button placement is also shown above (2nd image) to give you a clear idea which button is positioned where, what label it is programmed with and what character it sends to the computer.

Step 3: Code

Now download the code and install the mouse.h and keyboard.h libraries. Upload the code to your Arduino.

You can copy the code from below.

        #include<Mouse.h>
#include <Keyboard.h>
const int EMG = 2;    //Emergency stop button :) 
const int L1 = 7;
const int L2 = 8;
const int P1 = 9;
const int R1 = 14;
const int R2 = 16;
const int P2 = 10;
const int D1 = 4;
const int D2 = 5;
const int D3 = 6;
const int D4 = 3;  
const int SWITCH = 15; // digital pin 2 connected to SW output of JoyStick
const int X_AX = A1; // analog pin 0 connected to X output of JoyStick
const int Y_AX = A0; // analog pin 1 connected to Y output of JoyStick
int range = 10;               // output range or speed of X or Y movement
int responseDelay = 5;        // response delay of the mouse, in ms
int threshold = range / 4;    // resting threshold
int center = range / 2;
int EMGState = HIGH;
int L1S = LOW;
int L2S = LOW;
int P1S = LOW;
int R1S = LOW; 
int R2S = LOW; 
int P2S = LOW; 
int D1S = LOW;
int D2S = LOW;        //PREVIOUS STATES
int D3S = LOW; 
int D4S = LOW; 
void setup() 
{
  pinMode(EMG, INPUT);
  pinMode(L1, INPUT);
  pinMode(L2, INPUT);
  pinMode(P1, INPUT);
  pinMode(D1, INPUT);
  pinMode(D2, INPUT);
  pinMode(D3, INPUT);
  pinMode(D4, INPUT);
  pinMode(R1, INPUT);
  pinMode(R2, INPUT);
  pinMode(P2, INPUT);
  pinMode(SWITCH, INPUT_PULLUP); 
  Serial.begin(9600);
  Keyboard.begin();
  Mouse.begin();
}

void loop() 
{ 

  EMGState = digitalRead(EMG);
  if (EMGState == HIGH) 
  { 
    Serial.println("FAULT");
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    Keyboard.end();
    Mouse.end();
  }
  else
  {
      //Serial.println("OK"); 
      int L1STATE = digitalRead(L1);
      int L2STATE = digitalRead(L2);
      int P1STATE = digitalRead(P1);
      int D1STATE = digitalRead(D1);
      int D2STATE = digitalRead(D2);
      int D3STATE = digitalRead(D3);
      int D4STATE = digitalRead(D4);
      int R1STATE = digitalRead(R1);
      int R2STATE = digitalRead(R2);
      int P2STATE = digitalRead(P2);
      
      if(L1STATE==HIGH && L1S == LOW)
      {
        Serial.println("L1 PRESSED");
        Keyboard.press('K');              //K
      }
      if(L1STATE==LOW && L1S == HIGH)
      {
        Serial.println("L1 RELEASED");
        Keyboard.release('K');              //K
      }


      if(L2STATE==HIGH && L2S == LOW)
      {
        Serial.println("L2 PRESSED");
        Keyboard.press('J');              //J
      }
      if(L2STATE==LOW && L2S == HIGH)
      {
        Serial.println("L2 RELEASED");
        Keyboard.release('J');              //J
      }


      if(P1STATE==HIGH && P1S == LOW)
      {
        Serial.println("P1 PRESSED");
        Keyboard.press('H');              //H
      }
      if(P1STATE==LOW && P1S == HIGH)
      {
        Serial.println("P1 RELEASED");
        Keyboard.release('H');              //H
      }
     
      if(R1STATE==HIGH && R1S == LOW)
      {
        Serial.println("R1 PRESSED");     //L
        Keyboard.press('L');
      }
      if(R1STATE==LOW && R1S == HIGH)
      {
        Serial.println("R1 RELEASED");     //L
        Keyboard.release('L');
      }

      if(R2STATE==HIGH && R2S == LOW)
      {
        Serial.println("R2 PRESSED");     //G
        Keyboard.press('G');
      }
      if(R2STATE==LOW && R2S == HIGH)
      {
        Serial.println("R2 RELEASED");     //G
        Keyboard.release('G');
      }

      if(P2STATE==HIGH && P2S == LOW)
      {
        Serial.println("P2 PRESSED");     //F
        Keyboard.press('F');
      }
      if(P2STATE==LOW && P2S == HIGH)
      {
        Serial.println("P2 RELEASED");     //F
        Keyboard.release('F');
      }

      
      if(D1STATE==HIGH && D1S == LOW)           
      {
        Serial.println("D1 PRESSED");     //W
        Keyboard.press('W');
      }
      if(D1STATE==LOW && D1S == HIGH)           
      {
        Serial.println("D1 RELEASED");     //W
        Keyboard.release('W');
      }

      
      if(D2STATE==HIGH && D2S==LOW)
      {
        Serial.println("D2 PRESSED");     //A
        Keyboard.press('A');
      }
      if(D2STATE==LOW && D2S==HIGH)
      {
        Serial.println("D2 RELEASED");     //A
        Keyboard.release('A');
      }

      
      if(D3STATE==HIGH && D3S==LOW)
      {
        Serial.println("D3 PRESSED");     //S
        Keyboard.press('S');
      }
      if(D3STATE==LOW && D3S==HIGH)
      {
        Serial.println("D3 RELEASED");     //S
        Keyboard.release('S');
      }


      if(D4STATE==HIGH && D4S==LOW)
      {
        Serial.println("D4 PRESSED");     //D
        Keyboard.press('D');
      }
      if(D4STATE==LOW && D4S==HIGH)
      {
        Serial.println("D4 RELEASED");     //D
        Keyboard.release('D');
      }
      
      L1S = L1STATE;
      L2S = L2STATE;
      P1S = P1STATE;
      R1S = R1STATE;
      R2S = R2STATE;
      P2S = P2STATE;
      D1S = D1STATE;
      D2S = D2STATE;
      D3S = D3STATE;
      D4S = D4STATE;
     

     int xReading = readAxis(A1);
     int yReading = readAxis(A0);
     Mouse.move(xReading, yReading, 0);
     if (digitalRead(SWITCH) == LOW) 
       {
         if (!Mouse.isPressed(MOUSE_LEFT)) 
         {
           Mouse.press(MOUSE_LEFT);
         }
       }
      else 
      {
      if (Mouse.isPressed(MOUSE_LEFT)) 
      {
        Mouse.release(MOUSE_LEFT);
      }
      }

        delay(responseDelay);
 }
} 
int readAxis(int thisAxis) 
{
  int reading = analogRead(thisAxis);
  reading = map(reading, 0, 1023, 0, range);
  int distance = reading - center;
  if (abs(distance) < threshold) 
  {
    distance = 0;
  }

  return distance;
}
    

Step 4: Cutting, Painting and Soldering

First cut the PCB according to the size of the Game pad and align the push buttons and the joystick module.

Then paint the game pad with the color of your choice. I am really sorry for my poor painting and cutting skills. 

Now solder the push buttons and joystick on general purpose pcb.

Now fix the limit switches in their positions with the help of some super glue.

Solder the remaining components and do a final test.

Now close the enclosure with the help of some screws.

I have attached some pictures below to show you how the final product looks like.

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IMG_20190123_003415062.jpg
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IMG_20190130_121246653.jpg
IMG_20190131_110126764.jpg
IMG_20190131_125905974.jpg
IMG_20190211_160115592.jpg

That's it you are done. Now try playing some games. You can play emulator as well as PC games (which do not require more number of keys).

With this ends my first project here. I hope you liked it :)

engineer kid
I am an Electronics Engineer who loves to make microcontroller based projects.